Difference between revisions of "Managing Multiple GUIs"

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(OnEvent Mode: Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE ; it will not be necessary as we already check: If Not IsHWnd($aMsg[1]) Then)
 
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[[Category:Tutorials]]
 
 
=Introduction=
 
=Introduction=
 
Having several GUIs on the screen at the same time is fairly common but structuring your code to deal with this can seem quite daunting. However, as I hope this tutorial will demonstrate, it is nowhere near as difficult as it first appears.   
 
Having several GUIs on the screen at the same time is fairly common but structuring your code to deal with this can seem quite daunting. However, as I hope this tutorial will demonstrate, it is nowhere near as difficult as it first appears.   
Line 6: Line 5:
  
 
Let us start with ''MessageLoop'' mode as this is where most new coders run into difficulties with multiple GUIs.  This example script illustrates the problem - it exits when the '''[X]''' is clicked on either GUI:
 
Let us start with ''MessageLoop'' mode as this is where most new coders run into difficulties with multiple GUIs.  This example script illustrates the problem - it exits when the '''[X]''' is clicked on either GUI:
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit"> #include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit">
+
#include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
Global $hButton3 = 9999
+
#include <MsgBoxConstants.au3>
+
 
gui1()
+
Global $g_idButton3
+
 
Func gui1()
+
gui1()
    $hGUI1 = GUICreate("Gui 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
+
 
    $hButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
Func gui1()
    $hButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show Gui 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
+
Local $hGUI1 = GUICreate("GUI 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
    GUISetState()
+
Local $idButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
Local $idButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show GUI 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
    While 1
+
GUISetState(@SW_SHOW, $hGUI1)
        Switch GUIGetMsg()
+
 
            Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
+
While 1
                ExitLoop
+
Switch GUIGetMsg()
            Case $hButton1
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE
                MsgBox("", "MsgBox 1", "Test from Gui 1")
+
ContinueLoop
            Case $hButton2
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
                GUICtrlSetState($hButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
+
ExitLoop
                gui2()
+
Case $idButton1
            Case $hButton3
+
MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 1", "Test from GUI 1")
                MsgBox("", "MsgBox 2", "Test from Gui 2")  
+
Case $idButton2
        EndSwitch
+
GUICtrlSetState($idButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
    WEnd
+
gui2()
EndFunc  ;==>gui1
+
Case $g_idButton3
+
MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 2", "Test from GUI 2")
Func gui2()
+
EndSwitch
    $hGUI2 = GUICreate("Gui 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
+
WEnd
    $hButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
EndFunc  ;==>gui1
    GUISetState()
+
 
EndFunc  ;==>gui2 </syntaxhighlight>
+
Func gui2()
 +
Local $hGUI2 = GUICreate("GUI 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
 +
$g_idButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
 +
GUISetState(@SW_SHOW, $hGUI2)
 +
EndFunc  ;==>gui2
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 
 
The script exits because it has a single ''GUIGetMsg'' loop and the ''$GUI_EVENT_CLOSE'' message is received when either '''[X]''' is clicked - we have no way of telling the messages from the two GUIs apart.
 
The script exits because it has a single ''GUIGetMsg'' loop and the ''$GUI_EVENT_CLOSE'' message is received when either '''[X]''' is clicked - we have no way of telling the messages from the two GUIs apart.
  
 
The simplest solution is to disable the first GUI while the second is displayed:
 
The simplest solution is to disable the first GUI while the second is displayed:
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit"> #include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit">
+
#include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
gui1()
+
#include <MsgBoxConstants.au3>
+
 
Func gui1()
+
gui1()
    $hGUI1 = GUICreate("Gui 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
+
 
    $hButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
Func gui1()
    $hButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show Gui 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
+
Local $hGUI1 = GUICreate("GUI 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
    GUISetState()
+
Local $idButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
Local $idButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show GUI 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
    While 1
+
GUISetState()
        Switch GUIGetMsg()
+
 
            Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
+
While 1
                ExitLoop
+
Switch GUIGetMsg()
            Case $hButton1
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE
                MsgBox("", "MsgBox 1", "Test from Gui 1")
+
ContinueLoop
            Case $hButton2
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
                ; Disable the first GUI
+
ExitLoop
                GUISetState(@SW_DISABLE, $hGUI1)
+
Case $idButton1
                gui2()
+
MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 1", "Test from GUI 1")
                ; Re-enable the first GUI
+
Case $idButton2
                GUISetState(@SW_ENABLE, $hGUI1)
+
; Disable the first GUI
        EndSwitch
+
GUISetState(@SW_DISABLE, $hGUI1)
    WEnd
+
gui2()
EndFunc  ;==>gui1
+
; Re-enable the first GUI
+
GUISetState(@SW_ENABLE, $hGUI1)
Func gui2()
+
EndSwitch
    $hGUI2 = GUICreate("Gui 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
+
WEnd
    $hButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
EndFunc  ;==>gui1
    GUISetState()
+
 
+
Func gui2()
    While 1
+
Local $hGUI2 = GUICreate("GUI 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
        ; We can only get messages from the second GUI
+
Local $idButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
        Switch GUIGetMsg()
+
GUISetState()
            Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
+
 
                GUIDelete($hGUI2)
+
While 1
                ExitLoop
+
; We can only get messages from the second GUI
            Case $hButton3
+
Switch GUIGetMsg()
                MsgBox("", "MsgBox 2", "Test from Gui 2")
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE
EndSwitch
+
ContinueLoop
WEnd
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
EndFunc  ;==>gui2 </syntaxhighlight>
+
GUIDelete($hGUI2)
 +
ExitLoop
 +
Case $idButton3
 +
MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 2", "Test from GUI 2")
 +
EndSwitch
 +
WEnd
 +
 
 +
EndFunc  ;==>gui2
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 
 
This may well be all you need, but it does mean that we cannot action any of the controls on the first GUI until we close the second.  And importantly we remain blocked in the ''While...WEnd'' loop within the ''gui2'' function - go and read the [[Interrupting a running function]] tutorial to see why this is less than ideal.
 
This may well be all you need, but it does mean that we cannot action any of the controls on the first GUI until we close the second.  And importantly we remain blocked in the ''While...WEnd'' loop within the ''gui2'' function - go and read the [[Interrupting a running function]] tutorial to see why this is less than ideal.
  
 
So how can we deal with multiple GUIs visible at the same time?  Fortunately AutoIt offers us a simple way to differentiate between GUIs in ''MessageLoop'' mode.  Normally we use code like this in our idle loop to detect the messages sent by our GUI and its controls:
 
So how can we deal with multiple GUIs visible at the same time?  Fortunately AutoIt offers us a simple way to differentiate between GUIs in ''MessageLoop'' mode.  Normally we use code like this in our idle loop to detect the messages sent by our GUI and its controls:
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit"> Switch GUIGetMsg()
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit">
    Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
+
Switch GUIGetMsg()
        ; Code
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE
    Case $hButton1
+
ContinueLoop
        ; Code
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
EndSwitch </syntaxhighlight>  
+
; Code
 +
Case $idButton1
 +
; Code
 +
EndSwitch
 +
</syntaxhighlight>  
 +
 
 
But when dealing with multiple GUIs, we need to use the "''advanced''" parameter when we call ''GUIGetMsg''.  As explained in the Help file, the function then returns an array instead of a single value.  This array includes information on what exactly triggered the message, just what we need to distinguish the message that was sent (element['''0'''] of the array) and which GUI sent it (element['''1''']).  We can then amend our simple Switch statement above to read like this:  
 
But when dealing with multiple GUIs, we need to use the "''advanced''" parameter when we call ''GUIGetMsg''.  As explained in the Help file, the function then returns an array instead of a single value.  This array includes information on what exactly triggered the message, just what we need to distinguish the message that was sent (element['''0'''] of the array) and which GUI sent it (element['''1''']).  We can then amend our simple Switch statement above to read like this:  
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit"> $aMsg = GUIGetMsg(1) ; Use advanced parameter to get an array returned
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit">
 +
$aMsg = GUIGetMsg(1) ; Use advanced parameter to get an array returned
 +
If Not IsHWnd($aMsg[1]) Then ContinueLoop ; preventing subsequent lines from processing when nothing happens
  
Switch $aMsg[1] ; First check which GUI sent the message
+
Switch $aMsg[1] ; First check which GUI sent the message
    Case $hGUI1
+
Case $hGUI1
        Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages sent from $hGUI1
+
Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages sent from $hGUI1
            Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE  
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE ; it will not be necessary as we already check: If Not IsHWnd($aMsg[1]) Then
                ; Code
+
ContinueLoop
            Case $hControl
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
                ; Code
+
; Code
        EndSwitch
+
Case $hControl
    Case $hGUI2
+
; Code
        Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages sent from $hGUI2
+
EndSwitch
            Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
+
Case $hGUI2
                ; Code
+
Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages sent from $hGUI2
            Case $hButton3
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE ; it will not be necessary as we already check: If Not IsHWnd($aMsg[1]) Then
                ; Code
+
ContinueLoop
        EndSwitch
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
EndSwitch </syntaxhighlight>
+
; Code
 +
Case $idButton3
 +
; Code
 +
EndSwitch
 +
EndSwitch
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 
Although this looks complicated, if you take a moment to study it and you will quickly realise it is simply two ''Switch'' structures within an outer ''Switch''.  You have already dealt with a single ''Switch'' structure for a single GUI. All you are doing here is determining which ''Switch'' structure you want to use, and that depends on the GUI which sent the message which is why we need the outer ''Switch'' structure as a wrapper.
 
Although this looks complicated, if you take a moment to study it and you will quickly realise it is simply two ''Switch'' structures within an outer ''Switch''.  You have already dealt with a single ''Switch'' structure for a single GUI. All you are doing here is determining which ''Switch'' structure you want to use, and that depends on the GUI which sent the message which is why we need the outer ''Switch'' structure as a wrapper.
  
 
So here is an example of how to manage two GUIs simultaneously using the "''advanced''" parameter with ''GUIGetMsg'':
 
So here is an example of how to manage two GUIs simultaneously using the "''advanced''" parameter with ''GUIGetMsg'':
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit"> #include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit">
+
#include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
Global $hGUI2 = 9999, $hButton3 = 9999 ; Predeclare the variables with dummy values to prevent firing the Case statements
+
#include <MsgBoxConstants.au3>
+
 
gui1()
+
Global $g_hGUI1, $g_idButton1, $g_idButton2, $g_hGUI2, $g_idButton3
+
 
Func gui1()
+
example()
    $hGUI1 = GUICreate("Gui 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
+
 
    $hButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
Func example()
    $hButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show Gui 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
+
gui1()
    GUISetState()
+
Local $aMsg
+
 
    While 1
+
While 1
        $aMsg = GUIGetMsg(1) ; Use advanced parameter to get array
+
$aMsg = GUIGetMsg(1) ; Use advanced parameter to get array
        Switch $aMsg[1] ; check which GUI sent the message
+
If Not IsHWnd($aMsg[1]) Then ContinueLoop ; preventing subsequent lines from processing when nothing happens
            Case $hGUI1
+
 
                Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages for $hGUI1
+
Switch $aMsg[1] ; check which GUI sent the message
                    Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE ; If we get the CLOSE message from this GUI - we exit <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
+
Case $g_hGUI1
                        ExitLoop
+
Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages for $g_hGUI1
                    Case $hButton1
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE ; If we get the CLOSE message from this GUI: $g_hGUI1 ...
                        MsgBox("", "MsgBox 1", "Test from Gui 1")
+
ExitLoop ;  ... exit the loop and thus exit the program
                    Case $hButton2
+
Case $g_idButton1
                        GUICtrlSetState($hButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
+
MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 1", "Test from GUI 1")
                        gui2()
+
Case $g_idButton2
                EndSwitch
+
GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
            Case $hGUI2
+
gui2()
                Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages for $hGUI2
+
EndSwitch
                    Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE ; If we get the CLOSE message from this GUI - we just delete the GUI <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
+
Case $g_hGUI2
                        GUIDelete($hGUI2)
+
Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages for $g_hGUI2
                        GUICtrlSetState($hButton2, $GUI_ENABLE)
+
Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE ; If we get the CLOSE message from this GUI : $g_hGUI2 ...
                    Case $hButton3
+
GUIDelete($g_hGUI2) ; ... just delete the GUI ...
                        MsgBox("", "MsgBox", "Test from Gui 2")
+
GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_ENABLE) ; ... enable button (previously disabled)
                EndSwitch
+
Case $g_idButton3
        EndSwitch
+
MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox", "Test from GUI 2")
    WEnd
+
EndSwitch
EndFunc  ;==>gui1
+
EndSwitch
+
WEnd
Func gui2()
+
 
    $hGUI2 = GUICreate("Gui 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
+
EndFunc  ;==>example
    $hButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
 
    GUISetState()
+
Func gui1()
EndFunc  ;==>gui2 </syntaxhighlight>
+
$g_hGUI1 = GUICreate("GUI 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
 +
$g_idButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
 +
$g_idButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show GUI 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
 +
GUISetState()
 +
EndFunc  ;==>gui1
 +
 
 +
Func gui2()
 +
$g_hGUI2 = GUICreate("GUI 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
 +
$g_idButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
 +
GUISetState()
 +
EndFunc  ;==>gui2
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 
 
As you can see, we have a single ''While...WEnd'' loop which distinguishes between the two GUIs, both GUIs and their controls remain active and we stay in the main idle loop while we wait (you did read that other tutorial I hope!).
 
As you can see, we have a single ''While...WEnd'' loop which distinguishes between the two GUIs, both GUIs and their controls remain active and we stay in the main idle loop while we wait (you did read that other tutorial I hope!).
  
Line 161: Line 199:
  
 
Coders using ''OnEvent'' mode do not usually find the same problem with multiple GUIs as they can code separate functions for each ''$GUI_EVENT_CLOSE'' as shown here:
 
Coders using ''OnEvent'' mode do not usually find the same problem with multiple GUIs as they can code separate functions for each ''$GUI_EVENT_CLOSE'' as shown here:
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit"> #include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit">
+
#include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
Opt("GUIOnEventMode", 1)
+
#include <MsgBoxConstants.au3>
+
 
Global $hGUI2, $hButton2 ; Predeclare these variables
+
Opt("GUIOnEventMode", 1)
+
 
gui1()
+
Global $g_hGUI2, $g_idButton2
+
 
Func gui1()
+
gui1()
    $hGUI1 = GUICreate("Gui 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
+
 
    GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close_Main") ; Run this function when the main GUI [X] is clicked
+
Func gui1()
    $hButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
Local $hGUI1 = GUICreate("GUI 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
    GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button1")
+
GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close_Main") ; Run this function when the main GUI [X] is clicked
    $hButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show Gui 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
+
Local $idButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
    GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button2")
+
GUICtrlSetOnEvent($idButton1, "On_Button1")
    GUISetState()
+
$g_idButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show GUI 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
+
GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button2")
    While 1
+
GUISetState(@SW_SHOW, $hGUI1)
        Sleep(10)
+
 
    WEnd
+
While 1
EndFunc  ;==>gui1
+
Sleep(10)
+
WEnd
Func gui2()
+
EndFunc  ;==>gui1
    $hGUI2 = GUICreate("Gui 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
+
 
    GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close_Secondary") ; Run this function when the secondary GUI [X] is clicked
+
Func gui2()
    $hButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
$g_hGUI2 = GUICreate("GUI 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
    GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button3")
+
GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close_Secondary") ; Run this function when the secondary GUI [X] is clicked
    GUISetState()
+
Local $idButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
EndFunc  ;==>gui2
+
GUICtrlSetOnEvent($idButton3, "On_Button3")
+
GUISetState(@SW_SHOW, $g_hGUI2)
Func On_Close_Main()
+
EndFunc  ;==>gui2
    Exit
+
 
EndFunc
+
Func On_Close_Main()
+
Exit
Func On_Close_Secondary()
+
EndFunc   ;==>On_Close_Main
    GUIDelete($hGUI2)
+
 
    GUICtrlSetState($hButton2, $GUI_ENABLE)
+
Func On_Close_Secondary()
EndFunc
+
GUIDelete($g_hGUI2)
+
GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_ENABLE)
Func On_Button1()
+
EndFunc   ;==>On_Close_Secondary
    MsgBox("", "MsgBox 1", "Test from Gui 1")
+
 
EndFunc
+
Func On_Button1()
+
MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 1", "Test from GUI 1")
Func On_Button2()
+
EndFunc   ;==>On_Button1
    GUICtrlSetState($hButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
+
 
    gui2()
+
Func On_Button2()
EndFunc
+
GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
+
gui2()
Func On_Button3()
+
EndFunc   ;==>On_Button2
    MsgBox("", "MsgBox 2", "Test from Gui 2")
+
 
EndFunc </syntaxhighlight>
+
Func On_Button3()
 +
MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 2", "Test from GUI 2")
 +
EndFunc   ;==>On_Button3
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 
But did you realise that you can also use what some people think of as a hybrid mode - using common ''OnEvent'' functions and then determining the specific GUI or control which called the function within the function?  As an added bonus, this approach may, depending on the circumstances, let you send parameters to the functions you call - something that you normally cannot do in ''OnEvent'' mode.
 
But did you realise that you can also use what some people think of as a hybrid mode - using common ''OnEvent'' functions and then determining the specific GUI or control which called the function within the function?  As an added bonus, this approach may, depending on the circumstances, let you send parameters to the functions you call - something that you normally cannot do in ''OnEvent'' mode.
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit"> #include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="autoit">
+
#include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
Opt("GUIOnEventMode", 1)
+
#include <MsgBoxConstants.au3>
+
 
Global $hGUI1, $hGUI2 = 9999, $hButton1, $hButton2, $hButton3 = 9999 ; Predeclare the variables with dummy values to prevent firing the Case statements
+
Opt("GUIOnEventMode", 1)
+
 
gui1()
+
Global $g_hGUI1, $g_hGUI2, $g_idButton1, $g_idButton2, $g_idButton3
+
 
Func gui1()
+
gui1()
    $hGUI1 = GUICreate("Gui 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
+
 
    GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close") ; Call a common GUI close function
+
Func gui1()
    $hButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
$g_hGUI1 = GUICreate("GUI 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
    GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button") ; Call a common button function
+
GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close") ; Call a common GUI close function
    $hButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show Gui 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
+
$g_idButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
    GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button") ; Call a common button function
+
GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button") ; Call a common button function
    GUISetState()
+
$g_idButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show GUI 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
+
GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button") ; Call a common button function
    While 1
+
GUISetState()
        Sleep(10)
+
 
    WEnd
+
While 1
EndFunc  ;==>gui1
+
Sleep(10)
+
WEnd
Func gui2()
+
EndFunc  ;==>gui1
    $hGUI2 = GUICreate("Gui 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
+
 
    GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close") ; Call a common GUI close function
+
Func gui2()
    $hButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
+
$g_hGUI2 = GUICreate("GUI 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
    GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button") ; Call a common button function
+
GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close") ; Call a common GUI close function
    GUISetState()
+
$g_idButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
EndFunc  ;==>gui2
+
GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button") ; Call a common button function
+
GUISetState()
Func On_Close()
+
EndFunc  ;==>gui2
    Switch @GUI_WINHANDLE ; See which GUI sent the CLOSE message
+
 
        Case $hGUI1
+
Func On_Close()
            Exit ; If it was this GUI - we exit <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
+
Switch @GUI_WinHandle ; See which GUI sent the CLOSE message
        Case $hGUI2
+
Case $g_hGUI1
            GUIDelete($hGUI2) ; If it was this GUI - we just delete the GUI <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
+
Exit ; If it was this GUI - we exit <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
            GUICtrlSetState($hButton2, $GUI_ENABLE)
+
Case $g_hGUI2
    EndSwitch
+
GUIDelete($g_hGUI2) ; If it was this GUI - we just delete the GUI <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
EndFunc
+
GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_ENABLE)
+
EndSwitch
Func On_Button()
+
EndFunc   ;==>On_Close
    Switch @GUI_CTRLID ; See which button sent the message
+
 
        Case $hButton1
+
Func On_Button()
            MessageBox(1) ; We can call a function with parameters here <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
+
Switch @GUI_CtrlId ; See which button sent the message
        Case $hButton2
+
Case $g_idButton1
            GUICtrlSetState($hButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
+
MessageBox(1) ; We can call a function with parameters here <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
            gui2()
+
Case $g_idButton2
        Case $hButton3
+
GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
            MessageBox(2) ; We can call a function with parameters here <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
+
gui2()
    EndSwitch
+
Case $g_idButton3
EndFunc
+
MessageBox(2) ; We can call a function with parameters here <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
+
EndSwitch
Func MessageBox($iIndex)
+
EndFunc   ;==>On_Button
    MsgBox("", "MsgBox " & $iIndex, "Test from Gui " & $iIndex)
+
 
EndFunc
+
Func MessageBox($iIndex)
 +
MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox " & $iIndex, "Test from Gui " & $iIndex)
 +
EndFunc   ;==>MessageBox
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
  
Line 273: Line 316:
  
 
So you see that managing multiple GUIS is not as difficult as you might think.  One of these methods is bound to suit your script, but do not try and mix them - only one method per script please!
 
So you see that managing multiple GUIS is not as difficult as you might think.  One of these methods is bound to suit your script, but do not try and mix them - only one method per script please!
 +
 +
[[Category:Tutorials]]
 +
[[Category:GUI]]

Latest revision as of 21:20, 19 September 2021

Introduction

Having several GUIs on the screen at the same time is fairly common but structuring your code to deal with this can seem quite daunting. However, as I hope this tutorial will demonstrate, it is nowhere near as difficult as it first appears.

MessageLoop Mode

Let us start with MessageLoop mode as this is where most new coders run into difficulties with multiple GUIs. This example script illustrates the problem - it exits when the [X] is clicked on either GUI:

#include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
#include <MsgBoxConstants.au3>

Global $g_idButton3

gui1()

Func gui1()
	Local $hGUI1 = GUICreate("GUI 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
	Local $idButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
	Local $idButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show GUI 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
	GUISetState(@SW_SHOW, $hGUI1)

	While 1
		Switch GUIGetMsg()
			Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE
				ContinueLoop
			Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
				ExitLoop
			Case $idButton1
				MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 1", "Test from GUI 1")
			Case $idButton2
				GUICtrlSetState($idButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
				gui2()
			Case $g_idButton3
				MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 2", "Test from GUI 2")
		EndSwitch
	WEnd
EndFunc   ;==>gui1

Func gui2()
	Local $hGUI2 = GUICreate("GUI 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
	$g_idButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
	GUISetState(@SW_SHOW, $hGUI2)
EndFunc   ;==>gui2

The script exits because it has a single GUIGetMsg loop and the $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE message is received when either [X] is clicked - we have no way of telling the messages from the two GUIs apart.

The simplest solution is to disable the first GUI while the second is displayed:

#include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
#include <MsgBoxConstants.au3>

gui1()

Func gui1()
	Local $hGUI1 = GUICreate("GUI 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
	Local $idButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
	Local $idButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show GUI 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
	GUISetState()

	While 1
		Switch GUIGetMsg()
			Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE
				ContinueLoop
			Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
				ExitLoop
			Case $idButton1
				MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 1", "Test from GUI 1")
			Case $idButton2
				; Disable the first GUI
				GUISetState(@SW_DISABLE, $hGUI1)
				gui2()
				; Re-enable the first GUI
				GUISetState(@SW_ENABLE, $hGUI1)
		EndSwitch
	WEnd
EndFunc   ;==>gui1

Func gui2()
	Local $hGUI2 = GUICreate("GUI 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
	Local $idButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
	GUISetState()

	While 1
		; We can only get messages from the second GUI
		Switch GUIGetMsg()
			Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE
				ContinueLoop
			Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
				GUIDelete($hGUI2)
				ExitLoop
			Case $idButton3
				MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 2", "Test from GUI 2")
		EndSwitch
	WEnd

EndFunc   ;==>gui2

This may well be all you need, but it does mean that we cannot action any of the controls on the first GUI until we close the second. And importantly we remain blocked in the While...WEnd loop within the gui2 function - go and read the Interrupting a running function tutorial to see why this is less than ideal.

So how can we deal with multiple GUIs visible at the same time? Fortunately AutoIt offers us a simple way to differentiate between GUIs in MessageLoop mode. Normally we use code like this in our idle loop to detect the messages sent by our GUI and its controls:

Switch GUIGetMsg()
	Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE
		ContinueLoop
	Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
		; Code
	Case $idButton1
		; Code
EndSwitch

But when dealing with multiple GUIs, we need to use the "advanced" parameter when we call GUIGetMsg. As explained in the Help file, the function then returns an array instead of a single value. This array includes information on what exactly triggered the message, just what we need to distinguish the message that was sent (element[0] of the array) and which GUI sent it (element[1]). We can then amend our simple Switch statement above to read like this:

$aMsg = GUIGetMsg(1) ; Use advanced parameter to get an array returned
If Not IsHWnd($aMsg[1]) Then ContinueLoop ; preventing subsequent lines from processing when nothing happens

Switch $aMsg[1] ; First check which GUI sent the message
	Case $hGUI1
		Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages sent from $hGUI1
			Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE ; it will not be necessary as we already check: If Not IsHWnd($aMsg[1]) Then
				ContinueLoop
			Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
				; Code
			Case $hControl
				; Code
		EndSwitch
	Case $hGUI2
		Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages sent from $hGUI2
			Case $GUI_EVENT_NONE ; it will not be necessary as we already check: If Not IsHWnd($aMsg[1]) Then
				ContinueLoop
			Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE
				; Code
			Case $idButton3
				; Code
		EndSwitch
EndSwitch

Although this looks complicated, if you take a moment to study it and you will quickly realise it is simply two Switch structures within an outer Switch. You have already dealt with a single Switch structure for a single GUI. All you are doing here is determining which Switch structure you want to use, and that depends on the GUI which sent the message which is why we need the outer Switch structure as a wrapper.

So here is an example of how to manage two GUIs simultaneously using the "advanced" parameter with GUIGetMsg:

#include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
#include <MsgBoxConstants.au3>

Global $g_hGUI1, $g_idButton1, $g_idButton2, $g_hGUI2, $g_idButton3

example()

Func example()
	gui1()
	Local $aMsg

	While 1
		$aMsg = GUIGetMsg(1) ; Use advanced parameter to get array
		If Not IsHWnd($aMsg[1]) Then ContinueLoop ; preventing subsequent lines from processing when nothing happens

		Switch $aMsg[1] ; check which GUI sent the message
			Case $g_hGUI1
				Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages for $g_hGUI1
					Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE ; If we get the CLOSE message from this GUI: $g_hGUI1 ...
						ExitLoop ;  ... exit the loop and thus exit the program
					Case $g_idButton1
						MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 1", "Test from GUI 1")
					Case $g_idButton2
						GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
						gui2()
				EndSwitch
			Case $g_hGUI2
				Switch $aMsg[0] ; Now check for the messages for $g_hGUI2
					Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE ; If we get the CLOSE message from this GUI : $g_hGUI2 ...
						GUIDelete($g_hGUI2) ; ... just delete the GUI ...
						GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_ENABLE) ; ... enable button (previously disabled)
					Case $g_idButton3
						MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox", "Test from GUI 2")
				EndSwitch
		EndSwitch
	WEnd

EndFunc   ;==>example

Func gui1()
	$g_hGUI1 = GUICreate("GUI 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
	$g_idButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
	$g_idButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show GUI 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
	GUISetState()
EndFunc   ;==>gui1

Func gui2()
	$g_hGUI2 = GUICreate("GUI 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
	$g_idButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
	GUISetState()
EndFunc   ;==>gui2

As you can see, we have a single While...WEnd loop which distinguishes between the two GUIs, both GUIs and their controls remain active and we stay in the main idle loop while we wait (you did read that other tutorial I hope!).

OnEvent Mode

Coders using OnEvent mode do not usually find the same problem with multiple GUIs as they can code separate functions for each $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE as shown here:

#include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
#include <MsgBoxConstants.au3>

Opt("GUIOnEventMode", 1)

Global $g_hGUI2, $g_idButton2

gui1()

Func gui1()
	Local $hGUI1 = GUICreate("GUI 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
	GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close_Main") ; Run this function when the main GUI [X] is clicked
	Local $idButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
	GUICtrlSetOnEvent($idButton1, "On_Button1")
	$g_idButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show GUI 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
	GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button2")
	GUISetState(@SW_SHOW, $hGUI1)

	While 1
		Sleep(10)
	WEnd
EndFunc   ;==>gui1

Func gui2()
	$g_hGUI2 = GUICreate("GUI 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
	GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close_Secondary") ; Run this function when the secondary GUI [X] is clicked
	Local $idButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
	GUICtrlSetOnEvent($idButton3, "On_Button3")
	GUISetState(@SW_SHOW, $g_hGUI2)
EndFunc   ;==>gui2

Func On_Close_Main()
	Exit
EndFunc   ;==>On_Close_Main

Func On_Close_Secondary()
	GUIDelete($g_hGUI2)
	GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_ENABLE)
EndFunc   ;==>On_Close_Secondary

Func On_Button1()
	MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 1", "Test from GUI 1")
EndFunc   ;==>On_Button1

Func On_Button2()
	GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
	gui2()
EndFunc   ;==>On_Button2

Func On_Button3()
	MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox 2", "Test from GUI 2")
EndFunc   ;==>On_Button3

But did you realise that you can also use what some people think of as a hybrid mode - using common OnEvent functions and then determining the specific GUI or control which called the function within the function? As an added bonus, this approach may, depending on the circumstances, let you send parameters to the functions you call - something that you normally cannot do in OnEvent mode.

#include <GUIConstantsEx.au3>
#include <MsgBoxConstants.au3>

Opt("GUIOnEventMode", 1)

Global $g_hGUI1, $g_hGUI2, $g_idButton1, $g_idButton2, $g_idButton3

gui1()

Func gui1()
	$g_hGUI1 = GUICreate("GUI 1", 200, 200, 100, 100)
	GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close") ; Call a common GUI close function
	$g_idButton1 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Msgbox 1", 10, 10, 80, 30)
	GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button") ; Call a common button function
	$g_idButton2 = GUICtrlCreateButton("Show GUI 2", 10, 60, 80, 30)
	GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button") ; Call a common button function
	GUISetState()

	While 1
		Sleep(10)
	WEnd
EndFunc   ;==>gui1

Func gui2()
	$g_hGUI2 = GUICreate("GUI 2", 200, 200, 350, 350)
	GUISetOnEvent($GUI_EVENT_CLOSE, "On_Close") ; Call a common GUI close function
	$g_idButton3 = GUICtrlCreateButton("MsgBox 2", 10, 10, 80, 30)
	GUICtrlSetOnEvent(-1, "On_Button") ; Call a common button function
	GUISetState()
EndFunc   ;==>gui2

Func On_Close()
	Switch @GUI_WinHandle ; See which GUI sent the CLOSE message
		Case $g_hGUI1
			Exit ; If it was this GUI - we exit <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
		Case $g_hGUI2
			GUIDelete($g_hGUI2) ; If it was this GUI - we just delete the GUI <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
			GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_ENABLE)
	EndSwitch
EndFunc   ;==>On_Close

Func On_Button()
	Switch @GUI_CtrlId ; See which button sent the message
		Case $g_idButton1
			MessageBox(1) ; We can call a function with parameters here <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
		Case $g_idButton2
			GUICtrlSetState($g_idButton2, $GUI_DISABLE)
			gui2()
		Case $g_idButton3
			MessageBox(2) ; We can call a function with parameters here <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
	EndSwitch
EndFunc   ;==>On_Button

Func MessageBox($iIndex)
	MsgBox($MB_OK, "MsgBox " & $iIndex, "Test from Gui " & $iIndex)
EndFunc   ;==>MessageBox

Summary

So you see that managing multiple GUIS is not as difficult as you might think. One of these methods is bound to suit your script, but do not try and mix them - only one method per script please!