Function Reference


StringFormat

Returns a formatted string (similar to the C sprintf() function).

StringFormat ( "format control", var1 [, ... var32] )

Parameters

format control The format and flags to use (see Remarks).
var1...var32 Up to 32 variables that will be output according to the "format control".

Return Value

Returns the formatted string according to "format control" parameter.

Remarks

To prevent buffer overflow, each "variable" is limited to 65535 characters.
Escape characters can be contain in the "format control" such as \n (@LF), \r (@CR), \t (@TAB]. So if you want to have a "\" you need to use \\, samething for "%" %%.

"variable format" is; %[flags] [width] [.precision] type

If a format specification is invalid, the behaviour is undefined. If you specify invalid input you can in special circumstances create unhandled exception and cause program termination.

    Width Specification

The second optional field of the format specification is the width specification. The width argument is a nonnegative decimal integer controlling the minimum number of characters printed. If the number of characters in the output value is less than the specified width, blanks are added to the left or the right of the values — depending on whether the – flag (for left alignment) is specified — until the minimum width is reached. If width is prefixed with 0, zeros are added until the minimum width is reached (not useful for left-aligned numbers).

The width specification never causes a value to be truncated. If the number of characters in the output value is greater than the specified width, or if width is not given, all characters of the value are printed (subject to the precision specification).

    Type Specification

Type Variable type Output format
d, i Integer Signed decimal integer.
o Integer Unsigned octal integer.
u Integer Unsigned decimal integer.
x Integer Unsigned hexadecimal integer, using "abcdef".
X Integer Unsigned hexadecimal integer, using "ABCDEF".
e Float Signed value having the form [ - ]d.dddd e [sign]ddd where d is a single decimal digit, dddd is one or more decimal digits, ddd is exactly three decimal digits, and sign is + or -.
E Float Identical to the e format except that E rather than e introduces the exponent.
f Float Signed value having the form [ - ]dddd.dddd, where dddd is one or more decimal digits. The number of digits before the decimal point depends on the magnitude of the number, and the number of digits after the decimal point depends on the requested precision.
g Float Signed value printed in f or e format, whichever is more compact for the given value and precision. The e format is used only when the exponent of the value is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision argument. Trailing zeros are truncated, and the decimal point appears only if one or more digits follow it.
G Float Identical to the g format, except that E, rather than e, introduces the exponent (where appropriate).
s String String.

    Flag Specification

Flag Meaning Default
- Left align the result within the given field width. Right align.
+ Prefix the output value with a sign (+ or -) if the output value is of a signed type. Sign appears only for negative signed values (-).
0 If width is prefixed with 0, zeros are added until the minimum width is reached. If 0 and - appear, the 0 is ignored. If 0 is specified with an integer format (i, u, x, X, o, d) the 0 is ignored. No padding.
Blank Prefix the output value with a blank if the output value is signed and positive; the blank is ignored if both the blank and + flags appear. No blank appears.
# When used with the o, x, or X format, the # flag prefixes any nonzero output value with 0, 0x, or 0X, respectively. No blank appears.
# When used with the e, E, or f format, the # flag forces the output value to contain a decimal point in all cases. Decimal point appears only if digits follow it.
# When used with the g or G format, the # flag forces the output value to contain a decimal point in all cases and prevents the truncation of trailing zeros.
Ignored when used with d, i, u, or s.
Decimal point appears only if digits follow it. Trailing zeros are truncated.

    Precision Specification

The third optional field of the format specification is the precision specification. It specifies a nonnegative decimal integer, preceded by a period (.), which specifies the number of characters to be printed, the number of decimal places, or the number of significant digits (see Table below). Unlike the width specification, the precision specification can cause either truncation of the output value or rounding of a floating-point value. If precision is specified as 0 and the value to be converted is 0, the result is no characters output, as shown below:

StringFormat( "%.0d", 0 ); /* No characters return */

    How Precision Values Affect Type

Type Meaning Default
d, i, u, o, x, X The precision specifies the minimum number of digits to be printed. If the number of digits in the argument is less than precision, the output value is padded on the left with zeros. The value is not truncated when the number of digits exceeds precision. Default precision is 1.
e, E The precision specifies the number of digits to be printed after the decimal point. The last printed digit is rounded. Default precision is 6; if precision is 0 or the period (.) appears without a number following it, no decimal point is printed.
f The precision value specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. If a decimal point appears, at least one digit appears before it. The value is rounded to the appropriate number of digits. Default precision is 6; if precision is 0, or if the period (.) appears without a number following it, no decimal point is printed.
g, G The precision specifies the maximum number of significant digits printed. Six significant digits are printed, with any trailing zeros truncated.
s The precision specifies the maximum number of characters to be printed. Characters in excess of precision are not printed. Characters are printed until a null character is encountered.

Example

Example()

Func Example()
    Local $iInt_Unsigned = 43951789
    Local $iInt_Negative = -43951789

    ConsoleWrite(@CRLF & "Numeric Formats" & @CRLF)

    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%d", "standard positive integer with no sign", 1) ; 43951789
    PrintFormat($iInt_Negative, "%d", "standard negative integer with sign", 1) ; -43951789
    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%i", "standard integer", 1) ; 43951789
    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%09i", "9 digits with leading zero", 1) ; 043951789
    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%e", "scientific notation") ; 4.395179e+007
    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%u", "unsigned integer with positive integer", 1) ; 43951789
    PrintFormat($iInt_Negative, "%u", "unsigned integer with negative integer", 1) ; 4251015507
    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%f", "floating point") ; 43951789.000000
    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%.2f", "floating point with 2 digits after decimal point", 1) ; 43951789.00
    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%o", "octal", 1) ; 247523255
    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%s", "string", 1) ; 43951789
    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%x", "hexadecimal (lower-case)", 1) ; 29ea6ad
    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%X", "hexadecimal (upper-case)", 1) ; 29EA6AD
    PrintFormat($iInt_Unsigned, "%+d", "sign specifier on a positive integer", 1) ; +43951789
    PrintFormat($iInt_Negative, "%+d", "sign specifier on a negative integer", 1) ; -43951789

    Local $sString = "string"
    Local $sString_Long = "longstring"

    ConsoleWrite(@CRLF & "String Formats - [ ] used to show beginning/end of string" & @CRLF)

    PrintFormat($sString, "[%s]", "standard string", 1) ; [string]
    PrintFormat($sString, "[%10s]", "10 chars right justified with added spaces") ; [    string]
    PrintFormat($sString, "[%-10s]", "10 chars left justified with added spaces") ; [string    ]
    PrintFormat($sString_Long, "[%10.8s]", "right justified but precision 8 so truncated") ; [  longer s]
    PrintFormat($sString_Long, "[%-10.8s]", "left justifed but precision 8 so truncated") ; [longer s  ]
    PrintFormat($sString, "[%010s]", "10 chars with leading zero") ; [0000string]

    ConsoleWrite(@CRLF & "Date Format - each % uses a new parameter" & @CRLF)

    ConsoleWrite('"%02i\%02i\%04i" 0n (1, 9, 2013) => ' & StringFormat("%02i\%02i\%04i", 1, 9, 2013) & @CRLF & @CRLF)
EndFunc   ;==>Example

Func PrintFormat($vVar, $sFormat, $sExplan, $iTab = 0)
    ConsoleWrite('"' & $sFormat & '" on ' & $vVar & @TAB & ' => ' & StringFormat($sFormat, $vVar))
    If $iTab Then ConsoleWrite(@TAB)
    ConsoleWrite(@TAB & " ; " & $sExplan & @CRLF)
EndFunc   ;==>PrintFormat