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  1. Hello Guys! I wanted to share all my knowledge on arrays! Hope may enjoy the article , Lets start! Declaring arrays! Declaring arrays is a little different than other variables: ; Rules to follow while declaring arrays: ; ; Rule #1: You must have a declarative keyword like Dim/Global/Local before the declaration unless the array is assigned a value from a functions return (Ex: StringSplit) ; Rule #2: You must declare the number of dimensions but not necessarily the size of the dimension if you are gonna assign the values at the time of declaration. #include <Array.au3> Local $aEmptyArray[0] ; Creates an Array with 0 elements (aka an Empty Array). Local $aArrayWithData[1] = ["Data"] _ArrayDisplay($aEmptyArray) _ArrayDisplay($aArrayWithData) That's it Resizing Arrays Its easy! Just like declaring an empty array! ReDim is our friend here: #include <Array.au3> Local $aArrayWithData[1] = ["Data1"] ReDim $aArrayWithData[2] ; Change the number of elements in the array, I have added an extra element! $aArrayWithData[1] = "Data2" _ArrayDisplay($aArrayWithData) Just make sure that you don't use ReDim too often (especially don't use it in loops!), it can slow down you program. Best practice of using "Enum" You might be wondering what they might be... Do you know the Const keyword which you use after Global/Local keyword? Global/Local are declarative keywords which are used to declare variables, of course, you would know that already by now , If you check the documentation for Global/Local there is a optional parameter called Const which willl allow you to "create a constant rather than a variable"... Enum is similar to Const, it declares Integers (ONLY Integers): Global Enum $ZERO, $ONE, $TWO, $THREE, $FOUR, $FIVE, $SIX, $SEVEN, $EIGHT, $NINE ; And so on... ; $ZERO will evaluate to 0 ; $ONE will evaluate to 1 ; You get the idea :P ; Enum is very useful to declare Constants each containing a number (starting from 0) This script will demonstrate the usefulness and neatness of Enums : ; We will create an array which will contain details of the OS Global Enum $ARCH, $TYPE, $LANG, $VERSION, $BUILD, $SERVICE_PACK Global $aOS[6] = [@OSArch, @OSType, @OSLang, @OSVersion, @OSBuild, @OSServicePack] ; Now, if you want to access anything related to the OS, you would do this: ConsoleWrite(@CRLF) ConsoleWrite('+>' & "Architecture: " & $aOS[$ARCH] & @CRLF) ConsoleWrite('+>' & "Type: " & $aOS[$TYPE] & @CRLF) ConsoleWrite('+>' & "Langauge: " & $aOS[$LANG] & @CRLF) ConsoleWrite('+>' & "Version: " & $aOS[$VERSION] & @CRLF) ConsoleWrite('+>' & "Build: " & $aOS[$BUILD] & @CRLF) ConsoleWrite('+>' & "Service Pack: " & $aOS[$SERVICE_PACK] & @CRLF) ConsoleWrite(@CRLF) ; Isn't it cool? XD You can use this in your UDF(s) or Program(s), it will look very neat! Looping through an Array Looping through an array is very easy! . There are 2 ways to loop an array in AutoIt! Simple Way: ; This is a very basic way to loop through an array ; In this way we use a For...In...Next Loop! Global $aArray[2] = ["Foo", "Bar"] ; Create an array ; This loop will loop 2 times because our $aArray contains 2 elements. For $vElement In $aArray ; $vElement will contain the value of the elements in the $aArray... one element at a time. ConsoleWrite($vElement & @CRLF) ; Prints the element out to the console Next ; And that's it! Advanced Way: ; This is an advanced way to loop through an array ; In this way we use a For...To...Next Loop! Global $aArray[4] = ["Foo", "Bar", "Baz", "Quack"] ; Create an array ; This loop will loop 2 times because our $aArray contains 2 elements. For $i = 0 To UBound($aArray) - 1 ; $i is automatically created and is set to zero, UBound($aArray) returns the no. of elements in the $aArray. ConsoleWrite($aArray[$i] & @CRLF) ; Prints the element out to the console. Next ; This is the advanced way, we use $i to access the elements! ; With the advanced method you can also use the Step keyword to increase the offset in each "step" of the loop: ; This will only print every 2nd element starting from 0 ConsoleWrite(@CRLF & "Every 2nd element: " & @CRLF) For $i = 0 To UBound($aArray) - 1 Step 2 ConsoleWrite($aArray[$i] & @CRLF) Next ; This will print the elements in reverse order! ConsoleWrite(@CRLF & "In reverse: " & @CRLF) For $i = UBound($aArray) - 1 To 0 Step -1 ConsoleWrite($aArray[$i] & @CRLF) Next ; And that ends this section! For some reason, many people use the advance way more than the simple way . For more examples of loops see this post by @FrancescoDiMuro! Interpreting Multi-Dimensional Arrays Yeah, its the most brain squeezing problem for newbies, Imagining an 3D Array... I will explain it in a very simple way for ya, so stop straining you brain now! . This way will work for any array regardless of its dimensions... Ok, Lets start... You can imagine an array as a (data) mine of information: ; Note that: ; Dimension = Level (except the ground level :P) ; Element in a Dimension = Path ; Level 2 ----------\ ; Level 1 -------\ | ; Level 0 ----\ | | ; v v v Local $aArray[2][2][2] ; \-----/ ; | ; v ; Ground Level ; As you can see that $aArray is the Ground Level ; All the elements start after the ground level, i.e from level 0 ; Level 0 Contains 2 different paths ; Level 1 Contains 4 different paths ; Level 2 Contains 8 different paths ; When you want too fill some data in the data mine, ; You can do that like this: $aArray[0][0][0] = 1 $aArray[0][0][1] = 2 $aArray[0][1][0] = 3 $aArray[0][1][1] = 4 $aArray[1][0][0] = 5 $aArray[1][0][1] = 6 $aArray[1][1][0] = 7 $aArray[1][1][1] = 8 ; Don't get confused with the 0s & 1s, Its just tracing the path! ; Try to trace the path of a number with the help of the image! Its super easy! :D I hope you might have understand how an array looks, Mapping your way through is the key in Multi-Dimensional arrays, You take the help of notepad if you want! Don't be shy! Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) & Their answers Q #1. What are Arrays? A. An Array is an datatype of an variable (AutoIt has many datatypes of variables like "strings", "integers" etc. Array is one of them). An Array can store information in a orderly manner. An Array consist of elements, each element can be considered as a variable (and yes, each element has its own datatype!). AutoIt can handle 16,777,216 elements in an Array, If you have an Array with 16,777,217 elements then AutoIt crashes. Q #2. Help! I get an error while declaring an Array!? A. You tried to declare an array like this: $aArray[1] = ["Data"] That is not the right way, Array is a special datatype, since its elements can be considered as individual variables you must have an declarative keyword like Dim/Global/Local before the declaration, So this would work: Local $aArray[1] = ["Data"] Q #3. How can I calculate the no. of elements in an array? A. The UBound function is your answer, Its what exactly does! If you have an multi-dimensional Array you can calculate the total no. of elements in that dimension by specifying the dimension in the second parameter of UBound Q #4. Why is my For...Next loop throwing an error while processing an Array? A. You might have done something like this: #include <MsgBoxConstants.au3> Local $aArray[10] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] Local $iMyNumber = 0 For $i = 0 To UBound($aArray) ; Concentrate here! $iMyNumber += $aArray[$i] Next MsgBox($MB_OK, "Sum of all Numbers!", $iMyNumber) Did you notice the mistake? UBound returns the no. of elements in an array with the index starting from 1! That's right, you need to remove 1 from the total no. of elements in order to process the array because the index of an array starts with 0! So append a simple - 1 to the statment: #include <MsgBoxConstants.au3> Local $aArray[10] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] Local $iMyNumber = 0 For $i = 0 To UBound($aArray) - 1 $iMyNumber += $aArray[$i] Next MsgBox($MB_OK, "Sum of all Numbers!", $iMyNumber) Q #5. Can an Array contain an Array? How do I access an Array within an Array? A. Yes! It is possible that an Array can contain another Array! Here is an example of an Array within an Array: ; An Array can contain another Array in one of its elements ; Let me show you an example of what I mean ;) #include <Array.au3> Global $aArray[2] $aArray[0] = "Foo" Global $aChildArray[1] = ["Bar"] $aArray[1] = $aChildArray _ArrayDisplay($aArray) ; Did you see that!? The 2nd element is an {Array} :O ; But how do we access it??? ; You almost guessed it, like this: ; Just envolope the element which contains the {Array} (as shown in _ArrayDisplay) with brackets (or parentheses)! :D ConsoleWrite(($aArray[1])[0]) ; NOTE the brackets () around $aArray[1]!!! They are required or you would get an syntax error! ; So this: $aArray[1][0] wont work! More FAQs coming soon!
  2. Hello Again! I previously stumbled upon a topic asking for maps datatype's instructions... I too wasn't sure what a map is until I tried it... So I am making this topic to help other newbies (and some oldbies) better understand the Maps datatype of AutoIt! Lets start! A Note for Readers The maps datatype is still in development and is currently in Alpha Stage (More Risky than Beta) and its unstable, so AutoIt can crash indefinably while using Maps! I can't guarantee if this will be implemented in stable versions, this is a fairly new thing to AutoIt coders & in my honest opinion I don't see any use for it Maps are the best datatype in AutoIt, Very Useful ... Not hurting anyone though . Also the maps datatype is DISABLED IN STABLE VERSIONS, So you need to install the latest beta version of AutoIt to make maps work . If you find any bugs while using a map, please report it in the Official Bug Tracker Introduction To Maps Maps are just like arrays, instead they use "keys" to access elements inside them... A key can be either a string or an integer (Other datatypes work too but they are converted to a integer [Equivalent to Int($vKey)] before assignment [Source]). Although Integers don't represent the order of elements in a map unlike in an array... Declaring Maps Its similar to declaring an Array: ; This is the only way to declare a map ; You must have a declarative keyword like Dim/Global/Local before the declaration unless the map is assigned a value from a functions return Local $mMap[] ; Don't insert any numbers or strings it! Simple, Isn't it? Using Maps Using maps is similar to arrays (again!): Local $mMap[] ; Lets declare our map first! ; Adding data to maps is easy... ; This is our key ; | ; v $mMap["Key"] = "Value" ; <--- And our value! ; A key is Case-Sensitive meaning "Key" is not same as "key"! $mMap["key"] = "value" ; Not the same as $mMap["Key"]! ; There are 2 different ways to access an element in a map $mMap["Key"] ; 1st Method $mMap.Key ; 2nd Method Enumerating Maps Its quite easy to enumerate through arrays but what about maps? how can I enumerate through them!? #include <MsgBoxConstants.au3> ; Lets create our map first Local $mMap[] ; Lets add some information to the map, feel free to modify & add new elements $mMap["Name"] = "Damon Harris" $mMap["Alias"] = "TheDcoder" $mMap["Gender"] = "Male" $mMap["Age"] = 14 $mMap["Location"] = "India" $aMapKeys = MapKeys($mMap) ; MapKeys function returns all the keys in the format of an array Local $sProfile = "Profile of " & $mMap["Name"] & ':' & @CRLF ; We will use this string later For $vKey In $aMapKeys ; We use this to get the keys in a map :) $sProfile &= @CRLF & $vKey & ': ' & $mMap[$vKey] ; Add some details to the profile string using our map! Next MsgBox($MB_ICONINFORMATION + $MB_OK, "Profile", $sProfile) ; Finally display the profile :) It is easy as always Multi-Dimensional Maps Now now... I know that you are a little confused that how can an multi-dimensional maps exist... Although I am not 100% sure if its called that but lets continue: #include <MsgBoxConstants.au3> ; Multi-Dimensional maps are just maps in a map Local $mMapOfMapsvilla[] ; This map will store an other map Local $mParkMap[] ; This Park map will be inserted in the Mapsvilla's map :P $mMapOfMapsvilla["Map Item 1"] = "Town Hall" $mMapOfMapsvilla["Map Item 2"] = "Police Station" $mMapOfMapsvilla["Map Item 3"] = "Shopping Mall" $mMapOfMapsvilla["Map Item 4"] = "Residential Area" $mMapOfMapsvilla["Map Item 5"] = "Park" $mParkMap["Map Item 1"] = "Cottan Candy Stand" $mParkMap["Map Item 2"] = "Public Toilet" $mParkMap["Map Item 3"] = "Woods" $mMapOfMapsvilla.Park = $mParkMap MsgBox($MB_OK, "Map Location", $mMapOfMapsvilla["Map Item 1"]) ; Will display Town Hall MsgBox($MB_OK, "Map Location", $mMapOfMapsvilla.Park["Map Item 1"]) ; Will display Cottan Candy Stand I am sure its easy for you to understand now Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) & Their answers Q #1. Help! My code does not respond to anything (or) I get an "Variable subscript badly formatted" error on the line of declaration... A. DONT USE F5 or Go, Instead use Alt + F5 or Tools -> Beta Run in SciTE (Make sure that you have Beta installed) Q #2. Why are you using "m" in-front of every map variable? A. Best coding Practices: Names of Variables Q #3. What are "Elements" which you mention frequently??? A. This is a newbie question (I have no intention of insulting you ), so I guess you are new to programming. "Elements" are data slots inside a Map (or an Array), you can imagine elements as individual variable which are stored in a Map. You can access them using "keys", Please refer to "Introduction to Maps" section at the starting of this post Q #4. Are Maps faster than Arrays? A. You need to understand that Maps have different purpose than Arrays. Maps are designed to store data dynamically (like storing information for certain controlIDs of GUI) and Arrays are designed to store data in a order (for instance, Storing every character of a string in an element for easy access). If you still want to know then if Maps are faster, then the answer is maybe... Maps are *supposed* (I am not sure ) to be faster in addition of elements (while Arrays are painfully slow while adding or removing elements). Here (Post #24) is a benchmark (Thanks kealper! ) More FAQs coming soon! Feel free to ask a question in the mean while
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