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For some obvious reason,

Sucessfully to translate an #computing padding algorithm,

and outputting same value with example of an explanation

Lets take a breath, wiki say:

The following formulas provide the number of padding bytes required to align the start of a data structure (where mod is the modulo operator):

```# pseudo-code, see actual code below
padding = (align - (offset mod align)) mod align
new offset = offset + padding = offset + (align - (offset mod align)) mod align```

For example, the padding to add to offset 0x59d for a structure aligned to every 4 bytes is 3. The structure will then start at 0x5a0, which is a multiple of 4. Note that when offset already is a multiple of align, the second modulo in (align - (offset mod align)) mod align is required to get a padding of 0.

Then I write AutoIt3 script.

```ConsoleWrite(@CR & '+ Computing padding' & @CR)

\$align = 4
\$offset = 0x59d

\$padding = Mod(\$align - Mod(\$offset, \$align), \$align)
\$new_offset = \$offset + \$padding + Mod(\$offset + (\$align - Mod(\$offset, \$align)), \$align)

ConsoleWrite('padding: ' & \$padding & '  new offset: 0x' & StringLower(Hex(\$new_offset, 4)) & @CR)```

And the output is match with example in explanation.

```+ Computing padding

The question #01 are is that are correct translation? changing second line on second (=) (see below) with plus sign (+) in AutoIt3 (see above) ?

`new offset = offset + padding = offset + (align - (offset mod align)) mod align`

.

Again lets take a breath, wiki say:

If the alignment is a power of two, the modulo operation can be reduced to a bitwise boolean AND operation. The following formulas provide the new offset (where & is a bitwise AND and ~ a bitwise NOT):

```padding = align - (offset & (align - 1)) = (-offset) & (align - 1)
new offset = (offset + align - 1) & ~(align - 1)```

Then I write AutoIt3 script.

```ConsoleWrite(@CR & '+ align 2 - Power of Two' & @CR)

\$align = 2
\$offset = 0x59d

\$padding = \$align - (BitAND(\$offset, (\$align - 1))) + BitAND((-\$offset), (\$align - 1))
\$new_offset = BitAND((\$offset + \$align - 1), BitNOT(\$align - 1))

ConsoleWrite('padding: ' & \$padding & '  new offset: 0x' & StringLower(Hex(\$new_offset, 4)) & @CR)```

And the output is.

```+ align 2 - Power of Two

The question #02. First line and second (=) I replace with plus (+) sign, again is that correct?

The question #03.

What is meaning from the word of 'The Power of Two'?

Are 2 is The Power of Two?

Are 4, 8, 16 is The Power of Two?

Which are the number are is The Power of Two and which is not?

Can someone give me an confirmation if translation that pseudo-code to AutoIt3 are correct.?

Can someone give me an explanation what is so called 'The Power of Two'.?

Please answer even if you think this are childish question, because I'm not from Brittain nor from American.

Edited by prazetto

# Button. Progressbar - Graphical AutoIt3 Control (UDF) # GTK+ Framework | Widgets

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You could be interessed in browsing this old thread, at least the posts about alignment and padding, roughly >starting here and on the following page.

The kth power of number N is N multiplied k times by itself, which we write Nk. By convention and because it's true, N0 = 1.

Then N1 = N, N2 = N * N, N3 = N * N * N and so on.

Successive powers of 2 are: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, ...

This wonderful site allows debugging and testing regular expressions (many flavors available). An absolute must have in your bookmarks.
RegExp tutorial: enough to get started
PCRE v8.33 regexp documentation latest available release and currently implemented in AutoIt beta.

SQLitespeed is another feature-rich premier SQLite manager (includes import/export). Well worth a try.
SQLite Expert (freeware Personal Edition or payware Pro version) is a very useful SQLite database manager.
An excellent eBook covering almost every aspect of SQLite3: a must-read for anyone doing serious work.
SQL tutorial (covers "generic" SQL, but most of it applies to SQLite as well)
A work-in-progress SQLite3 tutorial. Don't miss other LxyzTHW pages!
SQLite official website with full documentation (may be newer than the SQLite library that comes standard with AutoIt)

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@jchd

Even the title of post are 'Latest Beta', but yes this are what I seek.

Now I can continue my project.

New update:

After reading those page back to 21, page 22 (pointed one) and next page 23.

At least it seem for me are temporary understand.

After try to understand then I try to translate and test.

The output size are match with DllStruct... family. Yes.

Finally:

```; assume member size
Local \$size[] = [2, 2, 4, 8, 1, 2]

; assume align 8, start at offset 0
Local \$nAlign = 8, _ ; value are align option : 1, 2, 4, 8, 16
\$iOffset = 0, _
\$nTemp = 0, _
\$nLargestSize = 8 ; there max(size[]) = 8

For \$loop = 0 To UBound(\$size)-1
\$iDataTypeSize = \$size[\$loop]

; Does this offset need padding first for correct alignment?
If \$iDataTypeSize < \$nAlign Then
\$nTemp = Mod(\$iOffset, \$iDataTypeSize)
If \$nTemp Then \$nTemp = \$iDataTypeSize - \$nTemp
Else
\$nTemp = Mod(\$iOffset, \$nAlign)
If \$nTemp Then \$nTemp = \$nAlign - \$nTemp
EndIf
\$iOffset += \$nTemp ; Update offset with padding

ConsoleWrite('offset: #' & \$loop & '  @  0x' & Ptr(\$iOffset) & '  size: ' & \$size[\$loop] & @CR)
\$iOffset += \$iDataTypeSize
Next

ConsoleWrite('offset: fn  @  0x' & Ptr(\$iOffset) & '  @pad :' & \$iOffset & @CR)

If (\$nLargestSize < \$nAlign) Then
\$nTemp = Mod(\$iOffset, \$nLargestSize)
If (\$nTemp) Then \$nTemp = \$nLargestSize - \$nTemp
Else
\$nTemp = Mod(\$iOffset, \$nAlign)
If (\$nTemp) Then \$nTemp = \$nAlign - \$nTemp
EndIf
\$iOffset = \$iOffset + \$nTemp;              // Update offset with padding

ConsoleWrite('offset: fn  @  0x' & Ptr(\$iOffset) & '  fin. :' & \$iOffset & @CR & @CR)

ConsoleWrite('Compare with Native function' & @CR)
Local \$mystruct = DllStructCreate('align ' & \$nAlign & '; word; word; dword; int64; byte; word;')
ConsoleWrite('DllStruct* Family : ' & DllStructGetSize(\$mystruct) & @CR)

For \$loop = 1 To 6
ConsoleWrite('offset: #' & \$loop-1 & '  @  ' & DllStructGetPtr(\$mystruct, \$loop) - DllStructGetPtr(\$mystruct, 1) & @CR )
Next

; jon:
;~    // Does this offset need padding first for correct alignment?
;~    if (iDataTypeSize < nAlign)
;~    {
;~       nTemp = iOffset % iDataTypeSize;
;~       if(nTemp)
;~       nTemp = iDataTypeSize - nTemp;
;~    }
;~    else
;~    {
;~       nTemp = iOffset % nAlign;
;~       if(nTemp)
;~           nTemp = nAlign - nTemp;
;~    }
;~    iOffset += nTemp;                   // Update offset with padding

;~    // Ensure the end of the structure is padded based on the size of the largest member
;~    if (nLargestSize < nAlign)
;~    {
;~       nTemp = iOffset % nLargestSize;
;~       if(nTemp)
;~           nTemp = nLargestSize - nTemp;
;~    }
;~    else
;~    {
;~       nTemp = iOffset % nAlign;
;~       if(nTemp)
;~           nTemp = nAlign - nTemp;
;~    }
;~    iOffset = iOffset + nTemp;              // Update offset with padding

; jchd:
;~ Individual member:
;~    // Does this offset need padding first for correct alignment of next member whose size is iDataTypeSize?
;~    nTemp = min(iDataTypeSize, nAlign);
;~    iOffset += (nTemp - (iOffset % nTemp)) % nTemp;                 // Update offset with padding

;~ Struct tail:
;~    // Ensure the end of the structure is padded based on the size of the smallest of (largest member or pack size)
;~    nTemp = min(nLargestSize, nAlign);
;~    iOffsetIn = iOffset + (nTemp - (iOffset % nTemp)) % nTemp;      // Update offset with padding```

Output:

```offset: #0  @  0x0x00000000  size: 2
offset: #1  @  0x0x00000002  size: 2
offset: #2  @  0x0x00000004  size: 4
offset: #3  @  0x0x00000008  size: 8
offset: #4  @  0x0x00000010  size: 1
offset: #5  @  0x0x00000012  size: 2
offset: fn  @  0x0x00000014  @pad :20
offset: fn  @  0x0x00000018  fin. :24

Compare with Native function
DllStruct* Family : 24
offset: #0  @  0x00000000
offset: #1  @  0x00000002
offset: #2  @  0x00000004
offset: #3  @  0x00000008
offset: #4  @  0x00000010
offset: #5  @  0x00000012```

See the twenty four number!

Try change \$nAlign, in my test. All align option 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 are match with native DllStruct... family.

Edited by prazetto

# Button. Progressbar - Graphical AutoIt3 Control (UDF) # GTK+ Framework | Widgets

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• By argumentum
AutoIt Machine Code Algorithm Collection
By Ward, November 11, 2010 in AutoIt Example Scripts
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CodeCrypter enables you to encrypt scripts without placing the key inside the script.
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'?do=embed' frameborder='0' data-embedContent>>
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Not convinced? Check out this updated and extended Q & A pdf (FAQ, also included in the bundle) to help you get started:
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For additional explanations/examples in response to specific questions by forum members (how it works, what it can/cannot do), see elsewhere in this thread, notably:
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Encryption currently relies on Ward excellent AES UDF, but you can replace this with any other algorithm you like; just edit MCFinclude.au3 UDF _MCFCC(), and MCF.au3 UDF _EncryptEntry(), see post #194 in this thread.
AES.au3, by Ward is now also included in bundle (with thanks to Ward), see '?do=embed' frameborder='0' data-embedContent>>
Going to lie down now...
RT
CodeCrypterFAQ.pdf
• By RTFC
MetaCode offers a way to:
separate a script's structure from its content remove all redundant definitions (globals and UDFs) change any content (and some structure) combine (new) structure and (new) content into a new script The most useful applications implemented so far are:
Fast language translation (not just text strings, also variable names and UDF names) Obfuscation (vars and/or UDFs) Script Encryption (conditionals, calls, and macros) Encryption is powerful because the key is not stored anywhere; you can define it to be a user password, macro, environment spec/variable, server response, something you define yourself, or a combination thereof; anything goes, as long as it's not a fixed string or fixed value. More info in the CodeCrypter thread: ?do=embed' frameborder='0' data-embedContent>'?do=embed' frameborder='0' data-embedContent>>
?do=embed' frameborder='0' data-embedContent>
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A brief Tutorial is here:
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The MCF library itself can be found in the CodeScannerCrypter bundle:
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And a little example how to use it for translating your GUI into a different language:
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MCF.au3 is just the library plus the MCFinclude.au3 file you need to include in any script you wish to encrypt.
There is no GUI here. However, I did write a separate front-end for it called CodeCrypter, which you can find here:
?do=embed' frameborder='0' data-embedContent>'?do=embed' frameborder='0' data-embedContent>>
?do=embed' frameborder='0' data-embedContent>
MCF uses output generated by my CodeScanner version 2.8+, which you can find here:
'?do=embed' frameborder='0' data-embedContent>>
CodeScanner also depends on MCF.au3 now, as it can now call a few of its functions.
I should also mention Ward's excellent AES.au3 UDFs used for the encryption and decryption calls,  which is now included in the CodeScannerCrypter bundle (thanks to Ward for allowing to include it). You can find the original (unpatched) version here:
'?do=embed' frameborder='0' data-embedContent>>
Note: you can replace the encryption/decryption calls with whatever algorithm you like (hint: the native <Crypt.au3> library is too slow for most purposes, better stick to machine code routines)
So just to be clear:
CodeScanner (v2.8+) needs MCF (earlier versions won't work!) CodeCrypter needs MCF (plus anything that MCF needs) MCF itself needs MCFinclude (part of MCF zip) MCF also needs readCSdatadump (part of the CodeScanner package, you need the latest version packaged with CodeScanner v2.8; earlier versions won't work!) both MCF and MCFinclude currently rely on AES.au3 by Ward So you basically need to download the whole bundle for any of it to work.

Next, read the extensive Remarks sections in MCF.au3, MCFinclude.au3, and CodeCrypter.au3
If still no joy, then please post. However, I'm not online that often, and logged in to the forum even less, so response may take a while).
RT
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