8 posts in this topic
I am busy with building a solution for change monitoring of VOIP call program and to be properly automated means among others need for some limited OCR functionality. Current works of others are way too much overkill for this case what makes the need to build it myself. But to do it properly I significantly have to increase my knowledge about digital graphics management.
For now I already have discovered here and there some mind blowing Autoit miracles what can be achieved with Windows own possibilities to manipulate that what is output to the monitor. And as far I can judge there are 2 options to process graphics without use of any external libraries like ImageMagick, FreeImage and so on. These are:
WinAPI GDIPlus It is for me quite obvious to have various holes in general understanding of graphics and it is once more very clear what advantages gives consistent general study in 1 or another official institutions like University. Cause there you are introduced into certain domain of knowledge in a way which usually has been perfected over long period of time. So you are not overloaded by stuff which requires a certain amount of information to be initially clear for you. For example, before starting to solve physics you first learn to read, count and so on and then move to subjects like physics.
Though in my case opportunity to study in such educational system I had only for 8 years, from my 7th to 15th year of age in the country that was falling apart now Ukraine but used to be USSR, was all what it was. After have immigrated to Netherlands possibilities to study further haven't occur. And this therefor causes often various implications when going deep in that or another field of practical knowledge acquiring for any needed physical result, like programming to perform enormous amount of tasks. In this particular case automating VOIP call program.
Anyway, right now I think the best direction to move is to concentrate on as basic as possible image management and if someone would maybe explain in general what is a pixel will definitely help. Particularly I am very curious about how to do picture manipulations in Autoit. Especially would help a lot to produce eventually following functions:
createImage($imageFileName, $width, $height, $color) readImagePixel($imageFileName, $x, $y) writeImagePixel($imageFileName, $x, $y) I do not know exactly how image is handled in computer but preferably above mentioned functions should deal with so far possible origin of graphics creation on computer. But nevertheless I definitely would love to hear any proposition for solution.
The problem with explaining screenshots:
VOIPConnect full Window Part of Window with control to monitor for changes Exact location of area where actual changes occur and have to be processed It comes down to a rectangle of approximately 51 pixel wide and 7 pixel high. In fact if I get to learn as far as to be able exactly read, write and compare 2 images consistently across different computers I could narrow down then even further the area to watch as little as a square of 2-5 pixels wide.
To finish here is last detail about particularly no need for ultra fast solution at all. This because it is needed only once when it is first run on a new computer and to have to wait few minutes while it is being set instead of just a few seconds make no sence.
This is it and what I too think to do beside this very particular case is to purify out beautiful generic Autoit functions for core image manipulation by using WinAPI or/and GDIPlus.
Func dg_get_images() $x1=0 $y1=0 ;MsgBox(0,"start","start") do $result = _ImageSearch("C:\Users\Server\Desktop\my project\image.png",1,$x1,$y1,0) until $result = 1; if $result=1 Then MouseMove($x1,$y1,3) MouseClick("left", $x1,$y1, 1) WinWait("[Title:TightVNC File Transfer]", "", 10) EndIf this code works when i search the image, but when i change the location of the desktop icon it can't find the desktop icon anymore. i wanna try image search area. but i don't know how to use it because i cant understand the parameter for the image search area. please help me how to solve it thank you in advance.
This is my first release of Box2D for AutoIT. A very fun and exciting UDF to be bringing to you all. For those who don't know, Box2D is a physics engine (see http://box2d.org/). It simulates physical systems using rigid bodies and collision detection. It is arguably the most prevalent physics engine in existence, within popular physics-based games like Angry Birds using it, and is also at the core of other advanced physics engines such as Unity.
For a quick demonstration of this UDF in action see the following YouTube video -> https://youtu.be/h5QH1O63Wik
Or play "Angry Nerds", the demo game, for yourself. Visit the EXAMPLES section below.
Box2D is purely a mathematical engine. It can model physics numerically. This in itself is quite interesting, however it really shines when applied to a good graphics engine. Recently I posted my SFML UDF over here ...
After benchmarking several popular graphics engines (i.e. GDI+, Direct2D, Irrlicht and SFML) with this Box2D UDF I've selected SFML as my favourite, and the engine that I believe performs the best (fastest) with a rich set of functions appropriate for any physics engine. With Box2D married with SFML, and running on AutoIT, the results are stunning.
A HUGE THANK-YOU to jRowe and linus (for the Irrlicht UDF) and UEZ for his post on GDI+ loading screens and trancexx and Eukalyptus for their work on Direct2D. Without their talents I would not have been able to reach this point on my own.
The Box2D library is available for C++. Way back in 2010 it was ported to Pure C by "Paril" and made available on Google Code and known as "Box2C". Google Code has since been shut down but the but the archive of Box2C still exists to this day here -> https://code.google.com/archive/p/box2c. This is the library which I have ported to AutoIT in this UDF.
SFML I am also porting to AutoIT under a separate UDF, as linked above.
Building this UDF has been a dream come true. I've been fascinated by physics-based games as far back as the golden age of gaming in the 80's, with thrust style games like Asteroids and platformers like Donkey Kong. I admired game developers like Jeremy Smith who created what may have been the first true game physics engines for the home computers. I was astonished by their talents in games like Thrust and Exile for the C64. Over the years I've attempted to mimic at least some of their success in my own games but alas I can not match their skills. Now much older automation tools have become my game. I use them almost every day, AutoIT included. I've dabbled in other languages for physics game development, like Scratch and Unity, but sadly I had wondered why AutoIT, with all it's glorious capabilities and rapid scripting features, didn't have such a feature. Hence this UDF.
This UDF demands a big time investment, and I am time poor, but I have a keen interest in the topic and will do my best to continue it's development. I am only a hobbyist game developer and welcome comments and suggestions from those far smarter than I on this topic.
AutoIt3 3.2 or higher LIST OF FUNCTIONS (in progress):
I've split this UDF into two halves. "Box2C.au3" is a UDF specifically for Box2C, the C API for Box2D. It provides the mathematics behind the engine. Additionally I'm providing "Box2CEx.au3" as an Extension that provides the graphics and gaming functions for Box2D.
Within the core "Box2C.au3" UDF:
_Box2C_Startup _Box2C_Shutdown _Box2C_b2Vec2_Constructor _Box2C_b2Vec2_Length _Box2C_b2Vec2_Distance _Box2C_b2World_Constructor _Box2C_b2World_CreateBody _Box2C_b2World_DestroyBody _Box2C_b2World_CreateFixture _Box2C_b2World_CreateFixtureFromShape _Box2C_b2World_Step _Box2C_b2BoxShape_Constructor _Box2C_b2CircleShape_Constructor _Box2C_b2PolygonShape_Constructor _Box2C_b2PolygonShape_Set _Box2C_b2PolygonShape_CrossProductVectorScalar _Box2C_b2PolygonShape_CrossProductVectorVector _Box2C_b2PolygonShape_Normalize _Box2C_b2PolygonShape_ComputeCentroid _Box2C_b2BodyDef_Constructor _Box2C_b2Body_DestroyFixture _Box2C_b2Body_GetPosition _Box2C_b2Body_SetPosition _Box2C_b2Body_GetAngle _Box2C_b2Body_SetAngle _Box2C_b2Body_SetAwake _Box2C_b2Body_SetTransform _Box2C_b2Body_GetLinearVelocity _Box2C_b2Body_SetLinearVelocity _Box2C_b2Body_GetAngularVelocity _Box2C_b2Body_SetAngularVelocity _Box2C_b2Body_ApplyForce _Box2C_b2Body_ApplyForceAtBody _Box2C_b2Body_ApplyDirectionalForceAtBody _Box2C_b2Body_ApplyTorque _Box2C_b2Fixture_GetShape _Box2C_b2Fixture_GetDensity _Box2C_b2Fixture_SetDensity _Box2C_b2Fixture_GetRestitution _Box2C_b2Fixture_SetRestitution _Box2C_b2Fixture_GetFriction _Box2C_b2Fixture_SetFriction _Box2C_b2Fixture_SetSensor Within y "Box2CEx.au3" extension:
x_metres_to_gui_x y_metres_to_gui_y metres_to_pixels atan2 radians_to_degrees degrees_to_radians _Box2C_Setup_SFML _Box2C_b2Vec2_GetGUIPosition _Box2C_b2World_Setup _Box2C_b2World_GDIPlusSetup _Box2C_b2World_SetPixelsPerMetre _Box2C_b2World_SetGUIArea _Box2C_b2World_GetGUIArea _Box2C_b2World_GetGUIAreaCenter _Box2C_b2World_Create _Box2C_b2World_Step_Ex _Box2C_b2World_StartAnimation _Box2C_b2World_Animate_SFML _Box2C_b2World_Animate_GDIPlus _Box2C_b2World_WaitForAnimateEnd _Box2C_b2ShapeArray_AddItem_SFML _Box2C_b2ShapeArray_SetItem_SFML _Box2C_b2ShapeArray_GetItemImagePath_SFML _Box2C_b2PolygonShape_ArrayAdd_Irrlicht _Box2C_b2PolygonShape_ArrayAdd_GDIPlus _Box2C_b2BodyDefArray_AddItem _Box2C_b2FixtureArray_SetItemSensor _Box2C_b2FixtureArray_GetItemDensity _Box2C_b2FixtureArray_SetItemDensity _Box2C_b2FixtureArray_GetItemRestitution _Box2C_b2FixtureArray_SetItemRestitution _Box2C_b2FixtureArray_GetItemFriction _Box2C_b2FixtureArray_SetItemFriction _Box2C_b2BodyArray_AddItem_SFML _Box2C_b2Body_ArrayAdd_Irrlicht _Box2C_b2Body_ArrayAdd_GDIPlus _Box2C_b2BodyArray_GetItemCount _Box2C_b2BodyArray_GetItemPosition _Box2C_b2BodyArray_SetItemPosition _Box2C_b2BodyArray_GetItemAngle _Box2C_b2BodyArray_SetItemAngle _Box2C_b2BodyArray_GetItemLinearVelocity _Box2C_b2BodyArray_SetItemActive _Box2C_b2BodyArray_SetItemAwake _Box2C_b2BodyArray_SetItemImage_SFML _Box2C_b2BodyArray_SetItemDraw _Box2C_b2BodyArray_ApplyItemForceAtBody _Box2C_b2BodyArray_ApplyItemDirectionalForceAtBody _Box2C_b2BodyArray_Transform_SFML _Box2C_b2Body_Transform_GDIPlus _Box2C_b2BodyArray_Draw_SFML _Box2C_b2Body_ArrayDrawDisplay_SFML _Box2C_b2Body_Destroy _Box2C_b2Body_Destroy_SFML _Box2C_b2Body_Rotate_GDIPlus The SFML functions used in the tests and demos will be available in the SFML UDF post (see reference above).
For such a powerful physics engine coupled to such a powerful graphics engine (SFML) it's sad that I've only had time to build one functional game, thus far. But it's a start.
My self-titled "Angry Nerds" is merely a demo of the same game concept as the ever-so-popular Angry Birds game. Angry Birds itself is built on top of Box2D. Likewise Angry Nerds. AutoIT + Box2D + SFML to be exact. I've compiled Angry Nerds and provided an installer also, so you can quickly run the demo for yourself. From the Github site below (in the DOWNLOAD section) run "Box2C_Angry_Nerds_Game_SFML_installer.exe" to install the demo to a location on your computer (desktop by default). Go into this folder and run "Box2C_Angry_Nerds_Game_SFML.exe". All instructions are displayed in-game. Should be quite easy to work out.
Aside from Angry Nerds there are also two test scripts:
Box2C_linear_forces_test_SFML.au3 Box2C_angular_forces_test_SFML.au3 Feel free to run these for a basic demonstration of rigid bodies, forces and collisions. The heart of Box2D and any physics engine.
Lastly I also have four speed tests as follows:
Box2C_speed_test_SFML.au3 Box2C_speed_test_Irrlicht.au3 Box2C_speed_test_D2D.au3 Box2C_speed_test_GDIPlus.au3 These were my initial evaluations into a suitable graphics engine for Box2D. I've since settled on SFML, but feel free to execute these. Note they may become quick defective over time as the SFML functions slowly take over.
You can download this UDF, including the examples above and associated files, from the following GitHub page:
Hope you all enjoy! I certainly am :-)
First off, yeah this may be the lamest title. But it made you look anyway!
Edit: Now updated! With step-counter, reset button and a few GUI-tweaks. (the step-counter is cheating! It's calculated in advance...)
I recently thought a screenshot of a finished maze may be smart to show, instead of only my long story and code. o=path, x=wall. Here it is:
I started making my own implementation of the A* pathing script in a larger project, inspired by Toady's work. (But made one from scratch myself anyway )
After the A* pathing script was working (not cleaned up yet) I wanted to test it. Unfortunately I got no good, randomized, maze lying around that also had the format I needed. So I made my own maze generator!
I did a few hours of research on the matter and then a few evenings of scripting.
For the people who are interested, one of my problems was that I needed 'one-cell' thick walls. Most maze generation have 1 pixel thick walls drawn by a line, that could be opened if a path is needed. The solution is so simple, I needed this guy to tell me. Click here for my inspiration source.
This generator can be used with different sizes maze, even uneven ones! Just set the width and height settings. FYI, it must be odd numbers for this maze to work with it's containment walls.
It's the 'simple' Depth-First Search, with backtracking. And without further ado; my a-maze-ing generator!:
#cs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- AutoIt Version: 220.127.116.11 Author: A-maze-ing generator Script Function: Generates a maze. In the $xy[$i] is the maze in array form. Don't forget to take the size with it, else it's just a string of o's and x's It does not generate an entrance or exit! #ce ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ; Script Start - Add your code below here #include <Array.au3> #include <GUIConstantsEx.au3> #include <StaticConstants.au3> ; Set various variables ; width and height must be odd numbers to have a closed, functioning maze. Global $height = 27 ; demo height = 27 Global $width = 43; demo width = 43 ; Check if width & height are an odd number (to get the outer edge an odd number is required) If mod($height, 2) = 0 Or $height < 5 Then msgbox(0,"","Height is not an odd number or a minimum of 5 tall !") Exit ElseIf mod($width, 2) = 0 Or $width < 5 Then msgbox(0,"","Width is not an odd number of a minimum of 5 wide !") Exit EndIf ; Set various variables when script is not exited Global $grid_size = $height * $width Global $numberofsteps = (Ceiling(($height-2) / 2) * (($width-2) - Ceiling(($width-2) / 2))) + (($height-2) - Ceiling(($height-2) / 2)) ; long formula to check the number of steps this maze will take, this is a mathematical given with a fixed number of cells. And yes, I am aware I'm taking a shortcut in this formula. ;) Global $curpos Global $backtrack Global $bt = 0 Local $grid_pixel = 20 ;How many pixels per square ; Initialize main array with all grid data Global $xy[$grid_size + 1] Global $reset_xy = $xy ; set the reset array $xy = $grid_size ; first entry is the total number of nodes, rest is set with a header name for easy reference in _ArrayDisplay if needed. $xy = "ID" $xy = "Row" $xy = "Column" $xy = "Type" ; Fill the grid array with 'walls' For $i = 1 To $xy $xy[$i] = "x" Next ; Start GUI and create standard buttons Local $gui = GUICreate("A-maze-ing generator", 180 + ($width * $grid_pixel), 80 + ($height * $grid_pixel)) ; Set the main window to the minimum width (IF) needed for the msgbox Local $aPos = WinGetPos($gui) If $aPos < 696 Then $aPos = 696 WinMove($gui, "", $aPos, $aPos, $aPos, $aPos) EndIf GUICtrlCreateLabel("This is a-maze-ing!", 30, 19) Global $progress = GUICtrlCreateLabel("Standing by... " & $numberofsteps & " steps to go.", 150, 15, 550, 30) Local $iOKButton = GUICtrlCreateButton("Start", 45, 50, 60) Local $iResetButton = GUICtrlCreateButton("Reset", 45, 90, 60) Local $iExitButton = GUICtrlCreateButton("Exit", 45, 130, 60) GUICtrlSetFont($progress, 15) GUICtrlSetColor($progress, 0x00AA00) GUICtrlSetState($iResetButton, $GUI_DISABLE) ; Create label-grid and fill the xy array with the positions Local $squarenr = 0 For $i = 0 To ($height * $grid_pixel) - $grid_pixel Step $grid_pixel ; Row For $j = 0 To ($width * $grid_pixel) - $grid_pixel Step $grid_pixel ; Column $squarenr = $squarenr + 1 $xy[$squarenr] = GUICtrlCreateLabel('x', 150 + $j, 50 + $i, $grid_pixel, $grid_pixel, BitOr($SS_SUNKEN, $SS_CENTER)) ; if you want debugging numbers, replace 'x' with $squarenr GUICtrlSetBkColor($xy[$squarenr], 0x5E87C9) ; lightblue-ish $xy[$squarenr] = $squarenr $xy[$squarenr] = ($i / $grid_pixel) + 1 $xy[$squarenr] = ($j / $grid_pixel) + 1 Next Next $reset_xy = $xy ; Show GUI GUISwitch($gui) GUISetState(@SW_SHOW) ; Start looping and waiting for input Local $aMsg = 0 While 1 $aMsg = GUIGetMsg(1) Select Case $aMsg = $iOKButton GUICtrlSetState($iOKButton, $GUI_DISABLE) GUICtrlSetState($iResetButton, $GUI_DISABLE) GUICtrlSetState($iExitButton, $GUI_DISABLE) GUICtrlSetColor($progress, 0xFF8C00) ; orange GUICtrlSetData($progress, "Running - Creating maze. Please stand by... " & $numberofsteps & " steps to go.") make_maze() GUICtrlSetColor($progress, 0xFF0000) ; red GUICtrlSetData($progress, "Maze complete!") Sleep(1000) ; Just a small sleep for dramatic effect GUICtrlSetColor($progress, 0x00AA00) ; green-ish GUICtrlSetData($progress, "Maze completed in " & $numberofsteps & " steps.") GUICtrlSetState($iResetButton, $GUI_ENABLE) GUICtrlSetState($iExitButton, $GUI_ENABLE) Case $aMsg = $iResetButton GUICtrlSetData($progress, "Resetting maze...") reset_maze() GUICtrlSetState($iResetButton, $GUI_DISABLE) GUICtrlSetState($iOKButton, $GUI_ENABLE) GUICtrlSetData($progress, "Maze reset!") Sleep(1000) ; Just a small sleep for dramatic effect GUICtrlSetData($progress, "Standing by...") Case $aMsg = $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE Or $aMsg = $iExitButton ExitLoop EndSelect WEnd Exit ; Resetting the maze to default state Func reset_maze() $xy = $reset_xy ; Set the $xy array back to it first-run values For $i = 1 To $xy $xy[$i] = "x" ; set everything to 'x' GUICtrlSetBkColor($xy[$i], 0x5E87C9) ; reset the background color GUICtrlSetData($xy[$i], "x") ; (re)set the label to 'x' Next EndFunc ; Main function Func make_maze() Local $heading Local $stepcount = $numberofsteps ; Reset the step counter. Local $timed = TimerInit() ; Start the timer to see how long the maze generation took. $backtrack = 0 $curpos = $width + 2 ; This is the starting position, second row, second column - aka top-left, one in from the sides. open_maze($curpos) ; Set the starter cell to 'open / white' ; Main maze generation loop While 1 Do $heading = direction($curpos) Until $heading <> 0 If $bt = 1 Then $bt = 0 ; reset backtracking-tracker, else the backtracking array keeps adding the current position GUICtrlSetData($progress, "Running - Creating maze. Please stand by... " & $stepcount & " steps to go.") Sleep(50) ; Slow maze creation down to look at it - relax! (or don't and comment out the sleep) If $heading = -1 Then ExitLoop $stepcount -= 1 ; Count down the steps to finish. ; We got the heading - now which way do we go? After that, set the current position to the last known heading. Switch $heading Case 1 ; north open_maze($curpos - $width) open_maze($curpos - ($width * 2)) $curpos = $curpos - ($width * 2) Case 2 ; east open_maze($curpos + 1) open_maze($curpos + 2) $curpos = $curpos + 2 Case 3 ; south open_maze($curpos + $width) open_maze($curpos + ($width * 2)) $curpos = $curpos + ($width * 2) Case 4 ; west open_maze($curpos - 1) open_maze($curpos - 2) $curpos = $curpos - 2 EndSwitch ;msgbox(0,"","Turn pause") ; for debugging, click every turn. WEnd ConsoleWrite("Maze completed in " & Round(TimerDiff($timed) / 1000, 1) & " seconds." & @CRLF) ; Show the generation time in seconds, rounded up with one decimal Return EndFunc Func open_maze($dest) ; Function set inputted cells to 'open' instead of being an uncool wall. $xy[$dest] = "o" GUICtrlSetData($xy[$dest], 'o') ; If you want debugging numbers, replace 'o' with $dest GUICtrlSetBkColor($xy[$dest], 0xEEEEEE) EndFunc Func direction(ByRef $curpos) ; Insert current position, output next heading for path generation. Local $nesw Local $open_directions $open_directions = 0 $nesw = $curpos - ($width * 2) ; north side checking If $nesw > $width + 1 Then fill_open_dir($nesw, 1, $open_directions) $nesw = $curpos + 2 ; east side checking If mod($nesw - 1, $width) <> 0 Then fill_open_dir($nesw, 2, $open_directions) $nesw = $curpos + ($width * 2) ; south side checking If $nesw < $grid_size - $width Then fill_open_dir($nesw, 3, $open_directions) $nesw = $curpos - 2 ; west side checking If mod($nesw, $width) <> 0 Then fill_open_dir($nesw, 4, $open_directions) ; Check which (if any) direction(s) are already opened, if so, discard them from the results-array For $i = $open_directions To 1 Step -1 If $xy[$open_directions[$i]] = "o" Then $open_directions -= 1 _ArrayDelete($open_directions, $i) EndIf Next ; If there are any results left... If $open_directions > 0 Then If $open_directions = 1 Then Return $open_directions ; Random does not work with min 1 and max 1 (output = 0), so in this case, return only with the only one result. Else If $bt = 0 Then ; If there is not backtracking active, add this crossroad to the backtrack-array. This is only needed if there are two or three possible sides. $backtrack += 1 _ArrayAdd($backtrack, $curpos) EndIf Return $open_directions[Random(1, $open_directions, 1)] ; Random choose between all possible directions and return with the outcome direction. EndIf ElseIf $backtrack > 0 Then ; If there are no results ánd there are entries in the backtrack list, then visit those entries to see if there still is a path possible. $curpos = $backtrack[$backtrack] _ArrayDelete($backtrack, $backtrack) $backtrack -= 1 $bt = 1 Return 0 ; Return with a new current direction ($curpos), from the backtrack array. Else Return -1 ; If there are no paths to explorer, in the pathing, or backtracking, then return with the message that we are finished. EndIf EndFunc Func fill_open_dir($nesw, $direction, ByRef $open_directions) ; Fill the $open_directions array with a new possible way $open_directions += 1 $open_directions[$open_directions] = $nesw $open_directions[$open_directions] = $direction Return EndFunc
P.S. The 'slow' generation is intended because it looks cool. Comment out the Sleep line on line 157 for a fast generation.