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nitekram

Global vs Local

17 posts in this topic

I had thought I knew the difference, but on showing an example, I found that I could be wrong. Can someone tell me, if I am mistaken, and that a Global variable should be known, even if it is declared in a function?

Local $iVariableOne = 1, $iVariableTwo = 2

If $iVariableOne = $iVariableTwo Then
    MsgBox('', 'see not', 'Hello World! ' & $junk)
    TestFunction()
EndIf


$iVariableTwo = 1
If $iVariableOne = $iVariableTwo Then
    MsgBox('', 'see', 'Hello World!')
    TestFunction()
EndIf

Func TestFunction()


    Global $junk = 666
    For $x = 0 To 10
        ;MsgBox('', '$x = ' & $x, 'Hello World!')
        ConsoleWrite($x & @CRLF)
    Next


EndFunc   ;==>TestFunction

All by me:

"Sometimes you have to go back to where you started, to get to where you want to go." 

"Everybody catches up with everyone, eventually" 

"As you teach others, you are really teaching yourself."

From my dad

"Do not worry about yesterday, as the only thing that you can control is tomorrow."

 

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#2 ·  Posted (edited)

In AutoIt3, you can declare a global variable inside a function.

There are many with their personal opinions about that, but whatever they are it does not change the fact.

Edited by JohnOne

AutoIt Absolute Beginners    Require a serial    Pause Script    Video Tutorials by Morthawt   ipify 

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I thought that was the case, but if you run my example...it flags it as not being declared, but if I run the function first, as in the example below - it runs, but still get the same warning, If I comment out the call to the function - nothing runs

(4,47) : warning: $junk: possibly used before declaration.
    MsgBox('', 'see not', 'Hello World! ' & $junk)

TestFunction()

MsgBox('', 'see not', 'Hello World! ' & $junk)



Func TestFunction()


    Global $junk = 666
    For $x = 0 To 10
        ;MsgBox('', '$x = ' & $x, 'Hello World!')
        ConsoleWrite($x & @CRLF)
    Next


EndFunc   ;==>TestFunction

All by me:

"Sometimes you have to go back to where you started, to get to where you want to go." 

"Everybody catches up with everyone, eventually" 

"As you teach others, you are really teaching yourself."

From my dad

"Do not worry about yesterday, as the only thing that you can control is tomorrow."

 

WindowsError.gif

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#4 ·  Posted (edited)

<snip>

Response in error.

Edited by kylomas

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#6 ·  Posted (edited)

The function has to run to declare the var...move the def out of the func and it will work

edit: spelling

Edited by kylomas

Forum Rules         Procedure for posting code

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The function has to run to declare the var...move the def out of the func and it will work

edit: spelling

 

I understand that I can do that...but I thought the idea was at run/compile time that the variables would be declared along with the functions, prior to running or compiling, and that would mean I could put a Global anywhere and it would be a known value, if it was declared with a value?


All by me:

"Sometimes you have to go back to where you started, to get to where you want to go." 

"Everybody catches up with everyone, eventually" 

"As you teach others, you are really teaching yourself."

From my dad

"Do not worry about yesterday, as the only thing that you can control is tomorrow."

 

WindowsError.gif

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That would be wrong, it's not declared until that part of the script executes. Just because you declare it as a global variable doesn't mean anything until it has been actually declared by running the command that declares it. It's better to always declare your variables before using them. Just because your script may declare it before it's used by calling the function, Au3Check doesn't see that, it just starts scanning from the top of the script to the bottom of it, and it sees that there's a variable called in the Global scope that hasn't been declared in the lines preceeding that use.


If I posted any code, assume that code was written using the latest release version unless stated otherwise. Also, if it doesn't work on XP I can't help with that because I don't have access to XP, and I'm not going to.
Give a programmer the correct code and he can do his work for a day. Teach a programmer to debug and he can do his work for a lifetime - by Chirag Gude
How to ask questions the smart way!

I hereby grant any person the right to use any code I post, that I am the original author of, on the autoitscript.com forums, unless I've specifically stated otherwise in the code or the thread post. If you do use my code all I ask, as a courtesy, is to make note of where you got it from.

Back up and restore Windows user files _Array.au3 - Modified array functions that include support for 2D arrays.  -  ColorChooser - An add-on for SciTE that pops up a color dialog so you can select and paste a color code into a script.  -  Customizable Splashscreen GUI w/Progress Bar - Create a custom "splash screen" GUI with a progress bar and custom label.  -  _FileGetProperty - Retrieve the properties of a file  -  SciTE Toolbar - A toolbar demo for use with the SciTE editor  -  GUIRegisterMsg demo - Demo script to show how to use the Windows messages to interact with controls and your GUI.  -   Latin Square password generator

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Be careful too with that empty param as the first message box param. I wish AuroIt had exceptions, so users wouldn't write such terrible code and pay attention to the help file.


_AdapterConnections()_AlwaysRun()_AppMon()_AppMonEx()_BinaryBin()_CheckMsgBox()_CmdLineRaw()_ContextMenu()_ConvertLHWebColor()/_ConvertSHWebColor()_DesktopDimensions()_DisplayPassword()_DotNet_Load()/_DotNet_Unload()_Fibonacci()_FileCompare()_FileCompareContents()_FileNameByHandle()_FilePrefix/SRE()_FindInFile()_GetBackgroundColor()/_SetBackgroundColor()_GetConrolID()_GetCtrlClass()_GetDirectoryFormat()_GetDriveMediaType()_GetFilename()/_GetFilenameExt()_GetHardwareID()_GetIP()_GetIP_Country()_GetOSLanguage()_GetSavedSource()_GetStringSize()_GetSystemPaths()_GetURLImage()_GIFImage()_GoogleWeather()_GUICtrlCreateGroup()_GUICtrlListBox_CreateArray()_GUICtrlListView_CreateArray()_GUICtrlListView_SaveCSV()_GUICtrlListView_SaveHTML()_GUICtrlListView_SaveTxt()_GUICtrlListView_SaveXML()_GUICtrlMenu_Recent()_GUICtrlMenu_SetItemImage()_GUICtrlTreeView_CreateArray()_GUIDisable()_GUIImageList_SetIconFromHandle()_GUIRegisterMsg()_GUISetIcon()_Icon_Clear()/_Icon_Set()_IdleTime()_InetGet()_InetGetGUI()_InetGetProgress()_IPDetails()_IsFileOlder()_IsGUID()_IsHex()_IsPalindrome()_IsRegKey()_IsStringRegExp()_IsSystemDrive()_IsUPX()_IsValidType()_IsWebColor()_Language()_Log()_MicrosoftInternetConnectivity()_MSDNDataType()_PathFull/GetRelative/Split()_PathSplitEx()_PrintFromArray()_ProgressSetMarquee()_ReDim()_RockPaperScissors()/_RockPaperScissorsLizardSpock()_ScrollingCredits_SelfDelete()_SelfRename()_SelfUpdate()_SendTo()_ShellAll()_ShellFile()_ShellFolder()_SingletonHWID()_SingletonPID()_Startup()_StringCompact()_StringIsValid()_StringRegExpMetaCharacters()_StringReplaceWholeWord()_StringStripChars()_Temperature()_TrialPeriod()_UKToUSDate()/_USToUKDate()_WinAPI_Create_CTL_CODE()_WinAPI_CreateGUID()_WMIDateStringToDate()/_DateToWMIDateString()Au3 script parsingAutoIt SearchAutoIt3 PortableAutoIt3WrapperToPragmaAutoItWinGetTitle()/AutoItWinSetTitle()CodingDirToHTML5FileInstallrFileReadLastChars()GeoIP databaseGUI - Only Close ButtonGUI ExamplesGUICtrlDeleteImage()GUICtrlGetBkColor()GUICtrlGetStyle()GUIEventsGUIGetBkColor()Int_Parse() & Int_TryParse()IsISBN()LockFile()Mapping CtrlIDsOOP in AutoItParseHeadersToSciTE()PasswordValidPasteBinPosts Per DayPreExpandProtect GlobalsQueue()Resource UpdateResourcesExSciTE JumpSettings INISHELLHOOKShunting-YardSignature CreatorStack()Stopwatch()StringAddLF()/StringStripLF()StringEOLToCRLF()VSCROLLWM_COPYDATAMore Examples...

Updated: 04/09/2015

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#10 ·  Posted (edited)

You have to do things in order...

Local $iVariableOne = 1, $iVariableTwo = 2

Func TestFunction()
    Global $junk = 666
    For $x = 0 To 10
        ;MsgBox('', '$x = ' & $x, 'Hello World!')
        ConsoleWrite($x & @CRLF)
    Next
EndFunc   ;==>TestFunction

If $iVariableOne = $iVariableTwo Then
    TestFunction()
    MsgBox('', 'see not', 'Hello World! ' & $junk)
EndIf

$iVariableTwo = 1
If $iVariableOne = $iVariableTwo Then
    MsgBox('', 'see', 'Hello World!')
    TestFunction()
EndIf

Although this is 'lipstick on a pig'

Edited by jdelaney

IEbyXPATH-Grab IE DOM objects by XPATH IEscriptRecord-Makings of an IE script recorder ExcelFromXML-Create Excel docs without excel installed GetAllWindowControls-Output all control data on a given window.

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What happens when you forget down the line that you mistakenly declared a Global variable inside a function? BrewManNH, Melba23, czardas and I don't say the whole declare global variables at the top of the script because we love to waste our breath. We're saving you time debugging fatal errors that can occur in the future when you've forgotten about your script's structure.


_AdapterConnections()_AlwaysRun()_AppMon()_AppMonEx()_BinaryBin()_CheckMsgBox()_CmdLineRaw()_ContextMenu()_ConvertLHWebColor()/_ConvertSHWebColor()_DesktopDimensions()_DisplayPassword()_DotNet_Load()/_DotNet_Unload()_Fibonacci()_FileCompare()_FileCompareContents()_FileNameByHandle()_FilePrefix/SRE()_FindInFile()_GetBackgroundColor()/_SetBackgroundColor()_GetConrolID()_GetCtrlClass()_GetDirectoryFormat()_GetDriveMediaType()_GetFilename()/_GetFilenameExt()_GetHardwareID()_GetIP()_GetIP_Country()_GetOSLanguage()_GetSavedSource()_GetStringSize()_GetSystemPaths()_GetURLImage()_GIFImage()_GoogleWeather()_GUICtrlCreateGroup()_GUICtrlListBox_CreateArray()_GUICtrlListView_CreateArray()_GUICtrlListView_SaveCSV()_GUICtrlListView_SaveHTML()_GUICtrlListView_SaveTxt()_GUICtrlListView_SaveXML()_GUICtrlMenu_Recent()_GUICtrlMenu_SetItemImage()_GUICtrlTreeView_CreateArray()_GUIDisable()_GUIImageList_SetIconFromHandle()_GUIRegisterMsg()_GUISetIcon()_Icon_Clear()/_Icon_Set()_IdleTime()_InetGet()_InetGetGUI()_InetGetProgress()_IPDetails()_IsFileOlder()_IsGUID()_IsHex()_IsPalindrome()_IsRegKey()_IsStringRegExp()_IsSystemDrive()_IsUPX()_IsValidType()_IsWebColor()_Language()_Log()_MicrosoftInternetConnectivity()_MSDNDataType()_PathFull/GetRelative/Split()_PathSplitEx()_PrintFromArray()_ProgressSetMarquee()_ReDim()_RockPaperScissors()/_RockPaperScissorsLizardSpock()_ScrollingCredits_SelfDelete()_SelfRename()_SelfUpdate()_SendTo()_ShellAll()_ShellFile()_ShellFolder()_SingletonHWID()_SingletonPID()_Startup()_StringCompact()_StringIsValid()_StringRegExpMetaCharacters()_StringReplaceWholeWord()_StringStripChars()_Temperature()_TrialPeriod()_UKToUSDate()/_USToUKDate()_WinAPI_Create_CTL_CODE()_WinAPI_CreateGUID()_WMIDateStringToDate()/_DateToWMIDateString()Au3 script parsingAutoIt SearchAutoIt3 PortableAutoIt3WrapperToPragmaAutoItWinGetTitle()/AutoItWinSetTitle()CodingDirToHTML5FileInstallrFileReadLastChars()GeoIP databaseGUI - Only Close ButtonGUI ExamplesGUICtrlDeleteImage()GUICtrlGetBkColor()GUICtrlGetStyle()GUIEventsGUIGetBkColor()Int_Parse() & Int_TryParse()IsISBN()LockFile()Mapping CtrlIDsOOP in AutoItParseHeadersToSciTE()PasswordValidPasteBinPosts Per DayPreExpandProtect GlobalsQueue()Resource UpdateResourcesExSciTE JumpSettings INISHELLHOOKShunting-YardSignature CreatorStack()Stopwatch()StringAddLF()/StringStripLF()StringEOLToCRLF()VSCROLLWM_COPYDATAMore Examples...

Updated: 04/09/2015

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Be careful too with that empty param as the first message box param. I wish AuroIt had exceptions, so users wouldn't write such terrible code and pay attention to the help file.

 

I use msgbox() and consolewrite() for debugging, but when I use msgbox(), I always put an empty param in, unless I plan on using it as way of getting feedback from the end user, then I use 4 as the first parameter - now that might be wrong, but it is a lot easier remembering the number 4 then the constant name.


All by me:

"Sometimes you have to go back to where you started, to get to where you want to go." 

"Everybody catches up with everyone, eventually" 

"As you teach others, you are really teaching yourself."

From my dad

"Do not worry about yesterday, as the only thing that you can control is tomorrow."

 

WindowsError.gif

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#13 ·  Posted (edited)

What happens when you forget down the line that you mistakenly declared a Global variable inside a function? BrewManNH, Melba23, czardas and I don't say the whole declare global variables at the top of the script because we love to waste our breath. We're saving you time debugging fatal errors that can occur in the future when you've forgotten about your script's structure.

I do not normally put global variables inside of functions, I make them local, and I call it with a global variables. I was giving a basic instruction to a coworker, and when I started changing my example around to show him how global variables worked, it broke.

But I am still glad I brought up this subject, as I really did not know it mattered. I will have to go through all my code, just to make sure I never used a global inside a function. I remember most of the time, I just declare it right before the function - I know I have bad habits lol?

 

EDIT and thanks for everyone's time, again

Edited by nitekram

All by me:

"Sometimes you have to go back to where you started, to get to where you want to go." 

"Everybody catches up with everyone, eventually" 

"As you teach others, you are really teaching yourself."

From my dad

"Do not worry about yesterday, as the only thing that you can control is tomorrow."

 

WindowsError.gif

WIKI | Tabs; | Arrays; | Strings | Wiki Arrays | How to ask a Question | Forum Search | FAQ | Tutorials | Original FAQ | ONLINE HELP | UDF's Wiki | AutoIt PDF

AutoIt Snippets | Multple Guis | Interrupting a running function | Another Send

StringRegExp | StringRegExp Help | RegEXTester | REG TUTOR | Reg TUTOT 2

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Replace $ghGDIPDll with $__g_hGDIPDll

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#14 ·  Posted (edited)

I do not normally put global variables inside of functions, I make them local, and I call it with a global variables. 

I don't quite understand your last point, but I do your first, so great.

We all have bad habits, the thing you should do and we all should do is to learn from them and from others. I am learning new techniques everyday and though it's not necessarily through this Forum, it is on other sites. I just relay this information back, hoping someone will benefit from it.

Edited by guinness

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Updated: 04/09/2015

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#15 ·  Posted (edited)

Sorry.

I do not declare global variables in functions. I was only doing it to show an example to a coworker. As it turns out it was a poor example, of both bad programming and being lazy not writing a good piece of code to show him.

That being said, I think you are correct about coding, and we all can learn from others. I think we should all strive to learn how to do it right. It takes a lot of practice, but I have found, that after every project I complete, I know the next time I do will better.

Thanks again for everyone's help

Edit, cleared it ?

Edited by nitekram

All by me:

"Sometimes you have to go back to where you started, to get to where you want to go." 

"Everybody catches up with everyone, eventually" 

"As you teach others, you are really teaching yourself."

From my dad

"Do not worry about yesterday, as the only thing that you can control is tomorrow."

 

WindowsError.gif

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Replace $ghGDIPDll with $__g_hGDIPDll

DLL 101?

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What did you mean previously by you make local and call it by global variables? Do you have an example so I can possibly understand? Thanks, as maybe I will learn a new technique.


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Updated: 04/09/2015

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I am sorry...I think I am a confused writer. What that means is simply, I use local variables inside of functions. What is confusing is the second part. I call the functions, with what ever is needed, being global variables or local variables from another function.


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