Jump to content
dany

GetOpt: UDF to parse the command line

Recommended Posts

dany

GetOpt.au3 v1.3

If you've ever dabbled in C (or Python, Perl etc) then you might have heard of getopt() (Wiki entry). Well, I wrote this UDF to get that functionality into AutoIt. Some searching around here on the forum did turn up some other UDFs in this direction, but I decided to write my own port anyway and parallel the implementation in the C library. It's still missing a few things but on a whole it does the job really well. It's now pretty much complete.

And I want to share it with you all. So here it is.

If you want to handle the command line options passed to your script or program like a master, then this is the UDF for you!

Main features:

  • Parses DOS style options as well as GNU style options alike.
  • Handles both short and long options.
  • Define options that must have arguments when used.
  • Define and handle suboptions (-s=foo,bar=quux,baz).
  • Supports + and /- option modifiers.
  • Casts string arguments to AutoIt variants, e.g. -a=yes becomes True.
  • Easy access to any passed operand that's not an option.

Some examples of invoking scripts:

Script.au3 -a -b=10 --long-option file.txt
Script.au3 /A /B:10 /Long-Option file.txt

As you see you can use both styles on the command line (as a matter of fact, at this moment you could even mix them but that wouldn't be good practice). In your script you just set the options you want to detect with _GetOpt_Set() and then iterate through each option with _GetOpt(). The 'file.txt' is available through _GetOpt_Oper(). See GetOpt-Example.au3 below for a step-by-step walkthrough of using GetOpt.au3.

The UDF:

GetOpt.au3 (+43)

GetOpt-Example.au3: A demo of GetOpt.au3

#include <GetOpt.au3>
#include <Array.au3> ; For demo purposes only.

If 0 = $CmdLine[0] Then
    ; Create our own example command line.
    Run(FileGetShortName(@AutoItExe) & ' ' & FileGetShortName(@ScriptFullPath) & ' -a=no -b=42 -c=0.5 /Windows:' & @OSVersion & ' -z --required -s=foo,bar=quux,baz +p /-M -- -w=ignored Hello World!')
    Exit
EndIf

_GetOpt_Demo()

Func _GetOpt_Demo()
    Local $sMsg = @ScriptName & ' for GetOpt v' & $GETOPT_VERSION & '.' & @CRLF & 'Parsing: ' & _ArrayToString($CmdLine, ' ', 1) & @CRLF & @CRLF; Message.
    Local $sOpt, $sSubOpt, $sOper
    ; Options array, entries have the format [short, long, default value]
    Local $aOpts[9][3] = [ _
        ['-a', '--a-option', True], _
        ['-b', '--b-option', False], _
        ['-c', '--c-option', 'c option argument'], _
        ['/W', '/Windows', 'windows style argument'], _ ; For demo purposes styles are mixed.
        ['-r', '--required', $GETOPT_REQUIRED_ARGUMENT], _ ; This option requires an argument.
        ['-s', '--suboption', $GETOPT_REQUIRED_ARGUMENT], _ ; option with suboptions.
        ['-p', '--plus', Default], _
        ['/M', '/Minus', Default], _
        ['-h', '--help', True] _
    ]
    ; Suboptions array, entries have the format [suboption, default value]
    Local $aSubOpts[2][2] = [ _
        ['foo', 47], _
        ['bar', True] _
    ]
    _GetOpt_Set($aOpts) ; Set options.
    If 0 < $GetOpt_Opts[0] Then ; If there are any options...
        While 1 ; ...loop through them one by one.
            ; Get the next option passing a string with valid options.
            $sOpt = _GetOpt('abcwr:s:pmh') ; r: means -r option requires an argument.
            If Not $sOpt Then ExitLoop ; No options or end of loop.
            ; Check @extended above if you want better error handling.
            ; The current option is stored in $GetOpt_Opt, it's index (in $GetOpt_Opts)
            ; in $GetOpt_Ind and it's value in $GetOpt_Arg.
            Switch $sOpt ; What is the current option?
                Case '?' ; Unknown options come here. @extended is set to $E_GETOPT_UNKNOWN_OPTION
                    $sMsg &= 'Unknown option: ' & $GetOpt_Ind & ': ' & $GetOpt_Opt
                    $sMsg &= ' with value "' & $GetOpt_Arg & '" (' & VarGetType($GetOpt_Arg) & ').' & @CRLF
                Case ':' ; Options with missing required arguments come here. @extended is set to $E_GETOPT_MISSING_ARGUMENT
                    $sMsg &= 'Missing required argument for option: ' & $GetOpt_Ind & ': ' & $GetOpt_Opt & @CRLF
                Case 'a', 'b', 'c', 'w', 'p', 'm'
                    $sMsg &= 'Option ' & $GetOpt_Ind & ': ' & $GetOpt_Opt
                    $sMsg &= ' with value "' & $GetOpt_Arg & '" (' & VarGetType($GetOpt_Arg) & ')'
                    If $GETOPT_MOD_PLUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= ' and invoked with plus modifier (+' & $GetOpt_Opt & ')'
                    ElseIf $GETOPT_MOD_MINUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= ' and invoked with minus modifier (/-' & $GetOpt_Opt & ')'
                    EndIf
                    $sMsg &= '.' & @CRLF
                Case 'r'
                    $sMsg &= 'Option ' & $GetOpt_Ind & ': ' & $GetOpt_Opt
                    $sMsg &= ' with required value "' & $GetOpt_Arg & '" (' & VarGetType($GetOpt_Arg) & ')'
                    If $GETOPT_MOD_PLUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= ' and invoked with plus modifier (+' & $GetOpt_Opt & ')'
                    ElseIf $GETOPT_MOD_MINUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= ' and invoked with minus modifier (/-' & $GetOpt_Opt & ')'
                    EndIf
                    $sMsg &= '.' & @CRLF
                Case 's'
                    $sMsg &= 'Option ' & $GetOpt_Ind & ': ' & $GetOpt_Opt
                    $sMsg &= ' with required suboptions:' & @CRLF
                    While 1 ; Loop through suboptions.
                        $sSubOpt = _GetOpt_Sub($GetOpt_Arg, $aSubOpts)
                        If Not $sSubOpt Then ExitLoop ; No suboptions or end of loop.
                        ; Check @extended above if you want better error handling.
                        ; The current suboption is stored in $GetOpt_SubOpt, it's index (in $GetOpt_SubOpts)
                        ; in $GetOpt_SubInd and it's value in $GetOpt_SubArg.
                        Switch $sSubOpt ; What is the current suboption?
                            Case '?'
                                $sMsg &= '    Unknown suboption ' & $GetOpt_SubInd & ': ' & $GetOpt_SubOpt
                                $sMsg &= ' with value "' & $GetOpt_SubArg & '" (' & VarGetType($GetOpt_SubArg) & ').' & @CRLF
                            Case 'foo', 'bar'
                                $sMsg &= '    Suboption ' & $GetOpt_SubInd & ': ' & $GetOpt_SubOpt
                                $sMsg &= ' with value "' & $GetOpt_SubArg & '" (' & VarGetType($GetOpt_SubArg) & ').' & @CRLF
                        EndSwitch
                    WEnd
                    If $GETOPT_MOD_PLUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= 'And invoked with plus modifier (+' & $GetOpt_Opt & ').'
                    ElseIf $GETOPT_MOD_MINUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= ' and invoked with minus modifier (/-' & $GetOpt_Opt & ')'
                    EndIf
                Case 'h'
                    MsgBox(0, 'GetOpt.au3', 'GetOpt.au3 example.' & @CRLF & _
                            'Just try out some options and find out what happens!')
                    Exit
            EndSwitch
        WEnd
    Else
        $sMsg &= 'No options passed.' & @CRLF
    EndIf
    $sMsg &= @CRLF
    If 0 < $GetOpt_Opers[0] Then ; If there are any operands...
        While 1 ; ...loop through them one by one.
            $sOper = _GetOpt_Oper() ; Get the next operand.
            If Not $sOper Then ExitLoop ; no operands or end of loop.
            ; Check @extended above if you want better error handling.
            $sMsg &= 'Operand ' & $GetOpt_OperInd & ': ' & $sOper & @CRLF
        WEnd
    Else
        $sMsg &= 'No operands passed.' & @CRLF
    EndIf
    MsgBox(0, @ScriptName, $sMsg) ; Let's see what we've got.
    _ArrayDisplay($GetOpt_Opts, '$GetOpt_Opts')
    _ArrayDisplay($GetOpt_Opers, '$GetOpt_Opers')
    _ArrayDisplay($GetOpt_ArgV, '$GetOpt_ArgV')
    Exit
EndFunc

Version 1.3:
+ Added support for -- (marks end of options).
+ Added support for + option modifiers e.g. +x.
+ Added support for /- option modifiers e.g. /-X.
+ Added _GetOpt_Sub to iterate through comma-separated suboptions like -s=a=foo,b=bar.
* Changed $GETOPT_REQUIRED_ARGUMENT from keyword Default to Chr(127), keyword can now be used as an option argument.
* Standardized comments and function headers.
* Tidy-ed up source code.
Version 1.2:
+ Support for required arguments with options, e.g. _GetOpt('ab:c') where -b=foo is valid and -b will return an error.
+ Added support for /C:foo (colon) when using DOS style.
+ Added optional auto-casting of arguments from Strings to AutoIt variants, e.g. -a=yes on the CLI would set the $GetOpt_Arg to True and not 'yes'. See __GetOpt_Cast.
* Private __GetOpt_DOSToGNU to simplify code.
Version 1.1:
* Initial public release.

If you encounter any bugs or have any suggestions, requests or improvements, then please let me know.

Happy coding!

Edited by dany
  • Like 1

[center]Spiderskank Spiderskank[/center]GetOpt Parse command line options UDF | AU3Text Program internationalization UDF | Identicon visual hash UDF

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
JasonTHEchristian

If im reading this right, it steps through your code one line at a time is that right?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
BrewManNH

This set of functions is for dealing with command line parameters sent to your script when you run the exe.


If I posted any code, assume that code was written using the latest release version unless stated otherwise. Also, if it doesn't work on XP I can't help with that because I don't have access to XP, and I'm not going to.
Give a programmer the correct code and he can do his work for a day. Teach a programmer to debug and he can do his work for a lifetime - by Chirag Gude
How to ask questions the smart way!

I hereby grant any person the right to use any code I post, that I am the original author of, on the autoitscript.com forums, unless I've specifically stated otherwise in the code or the thread post. If you do use my code all I ask, as a courtesy, is to make note of where you got it from.

Back up and restore Windows user files _Array.au3 - Modified array functions that include support for 2D arrays.  -  ColorChooser - An add-on for SciTE that pops up a color dialog so you can select and paste a color code into a script.  -  Customizable Splashscreen GUI w/Progress Bar - Create a custom "splash screen" GUI with a progress bar and custom label.  -  _FileGetProperty - Retrieve the properties of a file  -  SciTE Toolbar - A toolbar demo for use with the SciTE editor  -  GUIRegisterMsg demo - Demo script to show how to use the Windows messages to interact with controls and your GUI.  -   Latin Square password generator

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
dany

Yep, if you run 'program.exe -a -b -c' you can access each option inside the loop and deal with them appropiately.


[center]Spiderskank Spiderskank[/center]GetOpt Parse command line options UDF | AU3Text Program internationalization UDF | Identicon visual hash UDF

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
dany

New version 1.2, see first post for download and a changelog.


[center]Spiderskank Spiderskank[/center]GetOpt Parse command line options UDF | AU3Text Program internationalization UDF | Identicon visual hash UDF

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
dany

New version 1.3, see first post for download and a changelog.


[center]Spiderskank Spiderskank[/center]GetOpt Parse command line options UDF | AU3Text Program internationalization UDF | Identicon visual hash UDF

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
DaHack

Thank you for this awesome tool. I really love it. I did find an issue. When using an option, I am not able to send a zero as an option for a required option. For instance:

-t=0 or /t:0

This gives me an error that results from going into the Case ':'

I do have version 1.3, I upgraded today from 1.2.

Thanks again for the tool.


Time is precious, search wisely.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
useruser

Thank you for this awesome tool. I really love it. I did find an issue. When using an option, I am not able to send a zero as an option for a required option. For instance:

 

-t=0 or /t:0

 

This gives me an error that results from going into the Case ':'

 

I do have version 1.3, I upgraded today from 1.2.

 

Thanks again for the tool.

The same happens when passing "True/Yes/yes/y" as the required option.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
aixylinux

Thank you for your excellent UDF.  I used years ago with great success with an earlier version of Autoit--I don't recall which one.  Recently, using Autoit 3.3.14.2, I get a syntax error on these statements:

Global Const Enum $GETOPT_MOD_NONE = 0, $GETOPT_MOD_PLUS, $GETOPT_MOD_MINUS ; Int: Option modifiers.

 Global Const Enum $E_GETOPT_BAD_FUNCTION_ARGUMENT = 1, _
        $E_GETOPT_INVALID_OPTIONS, $E_GETOPT_NO_OPTIONS_SET, _
        $E_GETOPT_NO_COMMAND_LINE, $E_GETOPT_NO_OPTIONS, $E_GETOPT_NO_OPERANDS, _
        $E_GETOPT_UNKNOWN_OPTION, $E_GETOPT_MISSING_ARGUMENT, _
        $E_GETOPT_SUBOPTION_MISMATCH, $E_GETOPT_NO_SUBOPTIONS, $E_GETOPT_UNKNOWN_SUBOPTION

I found that if I remove the Const qualifier, the module compiles successfully.  Perhaps some change to Autoit altered the previously  valid syntax. After all, Enum implies Const.  

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now

  • Similar Content

    • ScriptJunky
      By ScriptJunky
      I noticed a lack of a constants file for _WinAPI_GetSystemMetrics() so I made this for anyone who wants to add it to their library. Enjoy!  (file attached below)
      #include-once ; #INDEX# ======================================================================================================================= ; Title .........: WinAPI GetSystemMetrics Constants ; AutoIt Version : 3.3.14.5 ; Language ......: English ; Description ...: Constants for _WinAPI_GetSystemMetrics(). ; Author(s) .....: ScriptJunky ; =============================================================================================================================== ; #CONSTANTS# =================================================================================================================== ; _WinAPI_GetSystemMetrics() Global Const $ARRANGE = 56 Global Const $CLEANBOOT = 67 Global Const $CMONITORS = 80 Global Const $CMOUSEBUTTONS = 43 Global Const $CONVERTIBLESLATEMODE = 0x2003 Global Const $CXBORDER = 5 Global Const $CXCURSOR = 13 Global Const $CXDLGFRAME = 7 Global Const $CXDOUBLECLK = 36 Global Const $CXDRAG = 68 Global Const $CXEDGE = 45 Global Const $CXFIXEDFRAME = 7 Global Const $CXFOCUSBORDER = 83 Global Const $CXFRAME = 32 Global Const $CXFULLSCREEN = 16 Global Const $CXHSCROLL = 21 Global Const $CXHTHUMB = 10 Global Const $CXICON = 11 Global Const $CXICONSPACING = 38 Global Const $CXMAXIMIZED = 61 Global Const $CXMAXTRACK = 59 Global Const $CXMENUCHECK = 71 Global Const $CXMENUSIZE = 54 Global Const $CXMIN = 28 Global Const $CXMINIMIZED = 57 Global Const $CXMINSPACING = 47 Global Const $CXMINTRACK = 34 Global Const $CXPADDEDBORDER = 92 Global Const $CXSCREEN = 0 Global Const $CXSIZE = 30 Global Const $CXSIZEFRAME = 32 Global Const $CXSMICON = 49 Global Const $CXSMSIZE = 52 Global Const $CXVIRTUALSCREEN = 78 Global Const $CXVSCROLL = 2 Global Const $CYBORDER = 6 Global Const $CYCAPTION = 4 Global Const $CYCURSOR = 14 Global Const $CYDLGFRAME = 8 Global Const $CYDOUBLECLK = 37 Global Const $CYDRAG = 69 Global Const $CYEDGE = 46 Global Const $CYFIXEDFRAME = 8 Global Const $CYFOCUSBORDER = 84 Global Const $CYFRAME = 33 Global Const $CYFULLSCREEN = 17 Global Const $CYHSCROLL = 3 Global Const $CYICON = 12 Global Const $CYICONSPACING = 39 Global Const $CYKANJIWINDOW = 18 Global Const $CYMAXIMIZED = 62 Global Const $CYMAXTRACK = 60 Global Const $CYMENU = 15 Global Const $CYMENUCHECK = 72 Global Const $CYMENUSIZE = 55 Global Const $CYMIN = 29 Global Const $CYMINIMIZED = 58 Global Const $CYMINSPACING = 48 Global Const $CYMINTRACK = 35 Global Const $CYSCREEN = 1 Global Const $CYSIZE = 31 Global Const $CYSIZEFRAME = 33 Global Const $CYSMCAPTION = 51 Global Const $CYSMICON = 50 Global Const $CYSMSIZE = 53 Global Const $CYVIRTUALSCREEN = 79 Global Const $CYVSCROLL = 20 Global Const $CYVTHUMB = 9 Global Const $DBCSENABLED = 42 Global Const $DEBUG = 22 Global Const $DIGITIZER = 94 Global Const $IMMENABLED = 82 Global Const $MAXIMUMTOUCHES = 95 Global Const $MEDIACENTER = 87 Global Const $MENUDROPALIGNMENT = 40 Global Const $MIDEASTENABLED = 74 Global Const $MOUSEPRESENT = 19 Global Const $MOUSEHORIZONTALWHEELPRESENT = 91 Global Const $MOUSEWHEELPRESENT = 75 Global Const $NETWORK = 63 Global Const $PENWINDOWS = 41 Global Const $REMOTECONTROL = 0x2001 Global Const $REMOTESESSION = 0x1000 Global Const $SAMEDISPLAYFORMAT = 81 Global Const $SECURE = 44 Global Const $SERVERR = 289 Global Const $SHOWSOUNDS = 70 Global Const $SHUTTINGDOWN = 0x2000 Global Const $SLOWMACHINE = 73 Global Const $STARTER = 88 Global Const $SWAPBUTTON = 23 Global Const $TABLETPC = 86 Global Const $XVIRTUALSCREEN = 76 Global Const $YVIRTUALSCREEN = 77  
      WinAPISystemMetricsConstants.au3
    • rcmaehl
      By rcmaehl
      A UDF with Extended Functions for Window Management
       
      Notes:
      Fixes WinGetClassList's barbaric returning of a @LF separated string instead of an array.
       
      Potential Uses:
      Automating applications that change their controls' handles/classes on each launch (e.g. half of Cisco's programs)
       
      Functions:
      _WinGetClassList
      _WinGetClassNNList
      _WindowGetHandleList
      _WindowGetHandleListFromPos
       
      Download: 
      WindowEx.zip  (v0.4)
       
      Changelog:
      10/04/2016 (v0.4): _WinGetClassNNList Fixed : Not Returning an Index when using $2D_ARRAY _WinGetClassNNList Fixed : Not Properly returning $aArray[x][1] on Classes with instances > 9 when using $2D_ARRAY 10/03/2016 (v0.3): _WinGetClassList Added : Exactly the same as WinGetClassList but returns a more civilized Array _WinGetClassNNList Added : Returns Classes and their instances in either a 1D or 2D array depending on Flags _WindowGetHandleList Renamed: _WinGetHandleList SCRIPT BREAKING! _WindowGetHandleListFromPos Renamed: _WinGetHandleListFromPos SCRIPT BREAKING! 10/01/2016 (v0.2): WindowsExConstants.au3 Added : Flags in _WindowGetHandleListFromPos _WindowGetHandleListFromPos Removed: ConsoleWrite left in during debug _WindowGetHandleListFromPos Added : Flag for if part of a Control is at $X, $Y return it as well. 10/01/2016 (v0.1): _WindowGetHandleList Added : Retrieves the handles of classes from a window. _WindowGetHandleListFromPos Added : Retrieves the handles of classes at a specific position from a window. Known and Reported Bugs:
      None reported To Do:
      To Be Decided. Opinions welcome! Upcoming Changes:
      To Be Decided.
    • FrancescoDiMuro
      By FrancescoDiMuro
      Good morning everyone

      I was playing a little bit with "Screen Capture" UDF, and I was trying to make a "Window" capture, but, since I made a GUI which through I fire the event "Capture", my GUI is captured as well, and I don't want to
      This is the line of code that makes the capture:
       
      _ScreenCapture_CaptureWnd($strScreenCaptureFileName, $objActiveWindow, 0, 0, -1, -1, False) And these are the lines of code which select the "active" window:
       
      Local $objCurrentWindow = 9999 If _IsPressed("01") Then $objCurrentWindow = WinGetHandle("[ACTIVE]") If $objCurrentWindow <> $objMyGUI Then $objActiveWindow = $objCurrentWindow EndIf EndIf Sorry If I made stupid mistakes
      Thanks in advance.

      Francesco
    • kcvinu
      By kcvinu
      Hi all,
      I am playing with _GUICtrlButton_Create function. How can i change this button's (or the entire form's) font ?. The in-built GUICtrlSetFont function is not working even when i convert the control handle to control ID with _WinAPI_GetDlgCtrlID ( ) function.  Do i need to use CreateFont api finction and send WM_SETFONT message ? Or is there any other easy and safe ways to do this ?. Thanks in advance.
      Note : This window is created by CreateWindowEx function, not by GUICreate function. 
    • okolaris
      By okolaris
      Hey everyone,
      I thought I might share my little Language UDF plus the more powerful SciTE Tool to ship Strings from SciTE into the xml file. While I haven't had the time to fully adapt the small UDF to one of the big XML-UDFs the so called "Language Transmitter" that basically writes the XML file for you runs mostly on "XML DOM wrapper (COM)" by eltorro. The Transmitter should work with other XML-Language-UDFs depending on their encoding.
       
      First let's start with the UDF, there are two functions of interest: _LangInit($sFilePath) and s($sString) As you will have guessed, _LangInit($sFilePath) is called once to initialize the UDF and s($sString) is used to receive the string to your key. Plain and simple.
      Now to the actual "new" part, the Language Transmitter. It basically allows you to transfer a selected String from SciTE into a xml file. While doing so it will scan for AutoIt variables, macros etc. and parse the string to fit StringFormat(). It then saves the formatted string in the xml file and returns the formatted call into SciTE. If the selected string is already defined it will directly parse the key into SciTE. To change the default output file, you can either edit the ini-file in the @ScriptDir of the LanguageTransmitter.exe or press Alt+A on empty space again and keep clicking cancel/no until the Transmitter let's you select the current output file. Standard output is strings.xml in the current opened AutoIt Script.
      Example:
      ; given the line: MsgBox(16, 'Error', 'Error message') ; select 'Error' run the Transmitter follow the instructions, repeat with 'Error message'. Outcome (e.g.): MsgBox(16, s('Error'), s('Error_msg')) ; Variables and Macro example: $sString = "Value: " & $iValue & @CRLF & 'Another value: '& $iValue2 ; Select the full string including all AutoIt variables and macros etc. in SciTE and press Alt+A (default) to run the LanguageTransmitter ; follow the instructions and it will then paste a formatted string like that into SciTE: $sVar = StringFormat(s('Key'), $iValue, $iValue2) ; the correlating xml entry should look like that: ; <string name="Key">Value: %s\r\nAnother value: %s</string> ; as you can see @CRLF has been replaced with \r\n as well. If you are working on a project and want to directly add a string to the xml file just start the Language Transmitter without selecting any text, enter your string and a key.
      SetUp/Installation
      Examples
      Since xml files are required all examples can be found in the zip file. There are two examples, one includes a language selection interface.
      Language File Checker
      I added a script to check whether the xml file contains all required strings or even unnecessary strings.
       
      Hope you like my little helper!
       
      UDF - LanguageSupport.zip
×