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GetOpt: UDF to parse the command line

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GetOpt.au3 v1.3

If you've ever dabbled in C (or Python, Perl etc) then you might have heard of getopt() (Wiki entry). Well, I wrote this UDF to get that functionality into AutoIt. Some searching around here on the forum did turn up some other UDFs in this direction, but I decided to write my own port anyway and parallel the implementation in the C library. It's still missing a few things but on a whole it does the job really well. It's now pretty much complete.

And I want to share it with you all. So here it is.

If you want to handle the command line options passed to your script or program like a master, then this is the UDF for you!

Main features:

  • Parses DOS style options as well as GNU style options alike.
  • Handles both short and long options.
  • Define options that must have arguments when used.
  • Define and handle suboptions (-s=foo,bar=quux,baz).
  • Supports + and /- option modifiers.
  • Casts string arguments to AutoIt variants, e.g. -a=yes becomes True.
  • Easy access to any passed operand that's not an option.

Some examples of invoking scripts:

Script.au3 -a -b=10 --long-option file.txt
Script.au3 /A /B:10 /Long-Option file.txt

As you see you can use both styles on the command line (as a matter of fact, at this moment you could even mix them but that wouldn't be good practice). In your script you just set the options you want to detect with _GetOpt_Set() and then iterate through each option with _GetOpt(). The 'file.txt' is available through _GetOpt_Oper(). See GetOpt-Example.au3 below for a step-by-step walkthrough of using GetOpt.au3.

The UDF:

GetOpt.au3 (+43)

GetOpt-Example.au3: A demo of GetOpt.au3

#include <GetOpt.au3>
#include <Array.au3> ; For demo purposes only.

If 0 = $CmdLine[0] Then
    ; Create our own example command line.
    Run(FileGetShortName(@AutoItExe) & ' ' & FileGetShortName(@ScriptFullPath) & ' -a=no -b=42 -c=0.5 /Windows:' & @OSVersion & ' -z --required -s=foo,bar=quux,baz +p /-M -- -w=ignored Hello World!')
    Exit
EndIf

_GetOpt_Demo()

Func _GetOpt_Demo()
    Local $sMsg = @ScriptName & ' for GetOpt v' & $GETOPT_VERSION & '.' & @CRLF & 'Parsing: ' & _ArrayToString($CmdLine, ' ', 1) & @CRLF & @CRLF; Message.
    Local $sOpt, $sSubOpt, $sOper
    ; Options array, entries have the format [short, long, default value]
    Local $aOpts[9][3] = [ _
        ['-a', '--a-option', True], _
        ['-b', '--b-option', False], _
        ['-c', '--c-option', 'c option argument'], _
        ['/W', '/Windows', 'windows style argument'], _ ; For demo purposes styles are mixed.
        ['-r', '--required', $GETOPT_REQUIRED_ARGUMENT], _ ; This option requires an argument.
        ['-s', '--suboption', $GETOPT_REQUIRED_ARGUMENT], _ ; option with suboptions.
        ['-p', '--plus', Default], _
        ['/M', '/Minus', Default], _
        ['-h', '--help', True] _
    ]
    ; Suboptions array, entries have the format [suboption, default value]
    Local $aSubOpts[2][2] = [ _
        ['foo', 47], _
        ['bar', True] _
    ]
    _GetOpt_Set($aOpts) ; Set options.
    If 0 < $GetOpt_Opts[0] Then ; If there are any options...
        While 1 ; ...loop through them one by one.
            ; Get the next option passing a string with valid options.
            $sOpt = _GetOpt('abcwr:s:pmh') ; r: means -r option requires an argument.
            If Not $sOpt Then ExitLoop ; No options or end of loop.
            ; Check @extended above if you want better error handling.
            ; The current option is stored in $GetOpt_Opt, it's index (in $GetOpt_Opts)
            ; in $GetOpt_Ind and it's value in $GetOpt_Arg.
            Switch $sOpt ; What is the current option?
                Case '?' ; Unknown options come here. @extended is set to $E_GETOPT_UNKNOWN_OPTION
                    $sMsg &= 'Unknown option: ' & $GetOpt_Ind & ': ' & $GetOpt_Opt
                    $sMsg &= ' with value "' & $GetOpt_Arg & '" (' & VarGetType($GetOpt_Arg) & ').' & @CRLF
                Case ':' ; Options with missing required arguments come here. @extended is set to $E_GETOPT_MISSING_ARGUMENT
                    $sMsg &= 'Missing required argument for option: ' & $GetOpt_Ind & ': ' & $GetOpt_Opt & @CRLF
                Case 'a', 'b', 'c', 'w', 'p', 'm'
                    $sMsg &= 'Option ' & $GetOpt_Ind & ': ' & $GetOpt_Opt
                    $sMsg &= ' with value "' & $GetOpt_Arg & '" (' & VarGetType($GetOpt_Arg) & ')'
                    If $GETOPT_MOD_PLUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= ' and invoked with plus modifier (+' & $GetOpt_Opt & ')'
                    ElseIf $GETOPT_MOD_MINUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= ' and invoked with minus modifier (/-' & $GetOpt_Opt & ')'
                    EndIf
                    $sMsg &= '.' & @CRLF
                Case 'r'
                    $sMsg &= 'Option ' & $GetOpt_Ind & ': ' & $GetOpt_Opt
                    $sMsg &= ' with required value "' & $GetOpt_Arg & '" (' & VarGetType($GetOpt_Arg) & ')'
                    If $GETOPT_MOD_PLUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= ' and invoked with plus modifier (+' & $GetOpt_Opt & ')'
                    ElseIf $GETOPT_MOD_MINUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= ' and invoked with minus modifier (/-' & $GetOpt_Opt & ')'
                    EndIf
                    $sMsg &= '.' & @CRLF
                Case 's'
                    $sMsg &= 'Option ' & $GetOpt_Ind & ': ' & $GetOpt_Opt
                    $sMsg &= ' with required suboptions:' & @CRLF
                    While 1 ; Loop through suboptions.
                        $sSubOpt = _GetOpt_Sub($GetOpt_Arg, $aSubOpts)
                        If Not $sSubOpt Then ExitLoop ; No suboptions or end of loop.
                        ; Check @extended above if you want better error handling.
                        ; The current suboption is stored in $GetOpt_SubOpt, it's index (in $GetOpt_SubOpts)
                        ; in $GetOpt_SubInd and it's value in $GetOpt_SubArg.
                        Switch $sSubOpt ; What is the current suboption?
                            Case '?'
                                $sMsg &= '    Unknown suboption ' & $GetOpt_SubInd & ': ' & $GetOpt_SubOpt
                                $sMsg &= ' with value "' & $GetOpt_SubArg & '" (' & VarGetType($GetOpt_SubArg) & ').' & @CRLF
                            Case 'foo', 'bar'
                                $sMsg &= '    Suboption ' & $GetOpt_SubInd & ': ' & $GetOpt_SubOpt
                                $sMsg &= ' with value "' & $GetOpt_SubArg & '" (' & VarGetType($GetOpt_SubArg) & ').' & @CRLF
                        EndSwitch
                    WEnd
                    If $GETOPT_MOD_PLUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= 'And invoked with plus modifier (+' & $GetOpt_Opt & ').'
                    ElseIf $GETOPT_MOD_MINUS = $GetOpt_Mod Then
                        $sMsg &= ' and invoked with minus modifier (/-' & $GetOpt_Opt & ')'
                    EndIf
                Case 'h'
                    MsgBox(0, 'GetOpt.au3', 'GetOpt.au3 example.' & @CRLF & _
                            'Just try out some options and find out what happens!')
                    Exit
            EndSwitch
        WEnd
    Else
        $sMsg &= 'No options passed.' & @CRLF
    EndIf
    $sMsg &= @CRLF
    If 0 < $GetOpt_Opers[0] Then ; If there are any operands...
        While 1 ; ...loop through them one by one.
            $sOper = _GetOpt_Oper() ; Get the next operand.
            If Not $sOper Then ExitLoop ; no operands or end of loop.
            ; Check @extended above if you want better error handling.
            $sMsg &= 'Operand ' & $GetOpt_OperInd & ': ' & $sOper & @CRLF
        WEnd
    Else
        $sMsg &= 'No operands passed.' & @CRLF
    EndIf
    MsgBox(0, @ScriptName, $sMsg) ; Let's see what we've got.
    _ArrayDisplay($GetOpt_Opts, '$GetOpt_Opts')
    _ArrayDisplay($GetOpt_Opers, '$GetOpt_Opers')
    _ArrayDisplay($GetOpt_ArgV, '$GetOpt_ArgV')
    Exit
EndFunc

Version 1.3:
+ Added support for -- (marks end of options).
+ Added support for + option modifiers e.g. +x.
+ Added support for /- option modifiers e.g. /-X.
+ Added _GetOpt_Sub to iterate through comma-separated suboptions like -s=a=foo,b=bar.
* Changed $GETOPT_REQUIRED_ARGUMENT from keyword Default to Chr(127), keyword can now be used as an option argument.
* Standardized comments and function headers.
* Tidy-ed up source code.
Version 1.2:
+ Support for required arguments with options, e.g. _GetOpt('ab:c') where -b=foo is valid and -b will return an error.
+ Added support for /C:foo (colon) when using DOS style.
+ Added optional auto-casting of arguments from Strings to AutoIt variants, e.g. -a=yes on the CLI would set the $GetOpt_Arg to True and not 'yes'. See __GetOpt_Cast.
* Private __GetOpt_DOSToGNU to simplify code.
Version 1.1:
* Initial public release.

If you encounter any bugs or have any suggestions, requests or improvements, then please let me know.

Happy coding!

Edited by dany

[center]Spiderskank Spiderskank[/center]GetOpt Parse command line options UDF | AU3Text Program internationalization UDF | Identicon visual hash UDF

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This set of functions is for dealing with command line parameters sent to your script when you run the exe.


If I posted any code, assume that code was written using the latest release version unless stated otherwise. Also, if it doesn't work on XP I can't help with that because I don't have access to XP, and I'm not going to.
Give a programmer the correct code and he can do his work for a day. Teach a programmer to debug and he can do his work for a lifetime - by Chirag Gude
How to ask questions the smart way!

I hereby grant any person the right to use any code I post, that I am the original author of, on the autoitscript.com forums, unless I've specifically stated otherwise in the code or the thread post. If you do use my code all I ask, as a courtesy, is to make note of where you got it from.

Back up and restore Windows user files _Array.au3 - Modified array functions that include support for 2D arrays.  -  ColorChooser - An add-on for SciTE that pops up a color dialog so you can select and paste a color code into a script.  -  Customizable Splashscreen GUI w/Progress Bar - Create a custom "splash screen" GUI with a progress bar and custom label.  -  _FileGetProperty - Retrieve the properties of a file  -  SciTE Toolbar - A toolbar demo for use with the SciTE editor  -  GUIRegisterMsg demo - Demo script to show how to use the Windows messages to interact with controls and your GUI.  -   Latin Square password generator

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Thank you for this awesome tool. I really love it. I did find an issue. When using an option, I am not able to send a zero as an option for a required option. For instance:

-t=0 or /t:0

This gives me an error that results from going into the Case ':'

I do have version 1.3, I upgraded today from 1.2.

Thanks again for the tool.


Time is precious, search wisely.

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Thank you for this awesome tool. I really love it. I did find an issue. When using an option, I am not able to send a zero as an option for a required option. For instance:

 

-t=0 or /t:0

 

This gives me an error that results from going into the Case ':'

 

I do have version 1.3, I upgraded today from 1.2.

 

Thanks again for the tool.

The same happens when passing "True/Yes/yes/y" as the required option.

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Thank you for your excellent UDF.  I used years ago with great success with an earlier version of Autoit--I don't recall which one.  Recently, using Autoit 3.3.14.2, I get a syntax error on these statements:

Global Const Enum $GETOPT_MOD_NONE = 0, $GETOPT_MOD_PLUS, $GETOPT_MOD_MINUS ; Int: Option modifiers.

 Global Const Enum $E_GETOPT_BAD_FUNCTION_ARGUMENT = 1, _
        $E_GETOPT_INVALID_OPTIONS, $E_GETOPT_NO_OPTIONS_SET, _
        $E_GETOPT_NO_COMMAND_LINE, $E_GETOPT_NO_OPTIONS, $E_GETOPT_NO_OPERANDS, _
        $E_GETOPT_UNKNOWN_OPTION, $E_GETOPT_MISSING_ARGUMENT, _
        $E_GETOPT_SUBOPTION_MISMATCH, $E_GETOPT_NO_SUBOPTIONS, $E_GETOPT_UNKNOWN_SUBOPTION

I found that if I remove the Const qualifier, the module compiles successfully.  Perhaps some change to Autoit altered the previously  valid syntax. After all, Enum implies Const.  

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Interesting UDF .
Here is little refactored version.

 

GetOpt.au3


Signature beginning:   Wondering who uses AutoIT and what it can be used for ?
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Any of my own code posted anywhere on the forum is available for use by others without any restriction of any kind. 

My contribution (my own projects): * Debenu Quick PDF Library - UDF * Debenu PDF Viewer SDK - UDF * Acrobat Reader - ActiveX Viewer * UDF for PDFCreator v1.x.x * XZip - UDF * AppCompatFlags UDF * CrowdinAPI UDF * _WinMergeCompare2Files() * _JavaExceptionAdd() * _IsBeta() * Writing DPI Awareness App - workaround * _AutoIt_RequiredVersion() * Chilkatsoft.au3 UDF * TeamViewer.au3 UDF * JavaManagement UDF * VIES over SOAP * WinSCP UDF * GHAPI UDF - modest begining - comunication with GitHub REST APIErrorLog.au3 UDF - A logging Library *

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Anticipating Errors :  "Any program that accepts data from a user must include code to validate that data before sending it to the data store. You cannot rely on the data store, ...., or even your programming language to notify you of problems. You must check every byte entered by your users, making sure that data is the correct type for its field and that required fields are not empty."

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      #include <GUIConstantsEx.au3> #include <MsgBoxConstants.au3> #include "GuiFlatButton.au3" Example() ;Example GUI with toolbar Func Example() Local $hGUI, $idLabel, $aButtons, $iTbSize $hGUI = GUICreate("GuiFlatButton Ex2", 300, 200) GUISetBkColor(0x444444) $idLabel = GUICtrlCreateLabel("Click a button", 10, 180, 150, 30) GUICtrlSetColor(-1, 0xFFFFFF) $aButtons = createToolbar() $iTbSize = UBound($aButtons) GUISetState(@SW_SHOW, $hGUI) Local $i = 0 Local $iMsg While 1 $iMsg = GUIGetMsg() Switch $iMsg Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE ExitLoop Case $aButtons[0] To $aButtons[$iTbSize - 1] ConsoleWrite("1") GUICtrlSetData($idLabel, GuiFlatButton_Read($iMsg)) EndSwitch Sleep(10) WEnd GUIDelete() EndFunc ;==>Example Func createToolbar() Local $aButtons[6] Local $bkColor = 0x777777 Local $textColor = 0xFFFFFF Local $borderColor = 0x999999 Local $aBtnClrs[12] = [0x777777, 0xFFFFFF, $GUI_BKCOLOR_TRANSPARENT, 0x888888, 0xFFFFFF, $GUI_BKCOLOR_TRANSPARENT, 0x999999, 0xFFFFFF, $GUI_BKCOLOR_TRANSPARENT, 0x666666, 0xFFFFFF, $GUI_BKCOLOR_TRANSPARENT] For $i = 0 To UBound($aButtons) - 1 $aButtons[$i] = GuiFlatButton_Create("B" & $i, $i * 50, 0, 50, 17) GuiFlatButton_SetColorsEx($aButtons[$i], $aBtnClrs) Next Return $aButtons EndFunc ;==>createToolbar  
      Icon Example
      You can even easily add icons to your buttons -- just create a new button and send it an icon!

      #include <GDIPlus.au3> #include "GuiFlatButton.au3" Example() ;buttons with Icon images Func Example() ;get images for demonstration _GDIPlus_Startup() ;initialize GDI+ Local $hIcon = _WinAPI_ShellExtractIcon(@SystemDir & '\shell32.dll', 258, 24, 24) ;extract the 'Save' icon Local $hBitmap = _GDIPlus_BitmapCreateFromHICON($hIcon) ;Create Bitmap from Icon (for demonstration) Local $hHBitmap = _GDIPlus_BitmapCreateHBITMAPFromBitmap($hBitmap) ;Create HBitmap from Bitmap _GDIPlus_BitmapDispose($hBitmap) ;dispose the bitmap _GDIPlus_Shutdown() ;done with GDI+ Local $hGUI = GUICreate("GuiFlatButton Ex5", 255, 400) GUISetBkColor(0xEEEEEE) ;set default colors of future buttons Local $aColorsEx = _ [0xE2E5E8, 0X000000, 0x888888, _ ; normal : Background, Text, Border 0xE2E5E8, 0X000000, 0x333333, _ ; focus : Background, Text, Border 0xE8E8E8, 0X000000, 0x666666, _ ; hover : Background, Text, Border 0xDDDDDD, 0X000000, 0xAAAAAA] ; selected : Background, Text, Border GuiFlatButton_SetDefaultColorsEx($aColorsEx) ;normal button with icon $label1 = GUICtrlCreateLabel( "$BS_TOOLBUTTON -->", 5, 10) GUICtrlSetBkColor(-1, $GUI_BKCOLOR_TRANSPARENT) Local $mybutton1 = GuiFlatButton_Create("Save", 130, 5, 50, 48, $BS_TOOLBUTTON) _WinAPI_DeleteObject(_SendMessage(GUICtrlGetHandle($mybutton1), $BM_SETIMAGE, $IMAGE_ICON, $hIcon)) ;align top Local $mybuttonT = GuiFlatButton_Create("Top", 5, 65, 120, 55, $BS_TOP) _WinAPI_DeleteObject(_SendMessage(GUICtrlGetHandle($mybuttonT), $BM_SETIMAGE, $IMAGE_ICON, $hIcon)) ;align top-left Local $mybuttonTL = GuiFlatButton_Create("Top-Left", 5, 125, 120, 55, BITOR($BS_TOP, $BS_LEFT)) _WinAPI_DeleteObject(_SendMessage(GUICtrlGetHandle($mybuttonTL), $BM_SETIMAGE, $IMAGE_ICON, $hIcon)) ;align top-right Local $mybuttonTR = GuiFlatButton_Create("Top-Right", 5, 185, 120, 55, BITOR($BS_TOP, $BS_RIGHT)) _WinAPI_DeleteObject(_SendMessage(GUICtrlGetHandle($mybuttonTR), $BM_SETIMAGE, $IMAGE_ICON, $hIcon)) ;align left Local $mybuttonL = GuiFlatButton_Create("Left", 5, 245, 120, 55, $BS_LEFT) _WinAPI_DeleteObject(_SendMessage(GUICtrlGetHandle($mybuttonL), $BM_SETIMAGE, $IMAGE_ICON, $hIcon)) ;align bottom Local $mybuttonB = GuiFlatButton_Create("Bottom", 130, 65, 120, 55, $BS_BOTTOM) _WinAPI_DeleteObject(_SendMessage(GUICtrlGetHandle($mybuttonB), $BM_SETIMAGE, $IMAGE_ICON, $hIcon)) ;align bottom-left Local $mybuttonBL = GuiFlatButton_Create("Bottom-Left", 130, 125, 120, 55, BITOR($BS_BOTTOM, $BS_LEFT)) _WinAPI_DeleteObject(_SendMessage(GUICtrlGetHandle($mybuttonBL), $BM_SETIMAGE, $IMAGE_ICON, $hIcon)) ;align bottom-right Local $mybuttonBR = GuiFlatButton_Create("Bottom-Right", 130, 185, 120, 55, BITOR($BS_BOTTOM, $BS_RIGHT)) _WinAPI_DeleteObject(_SendMessage(GUICtrlGetHandle($mybuttonBR), $BM_SETIMAGE, $IMAGE_ICON, $hIcon)) ;align right Local $mybuttonR = GuiFlatButton_Create("Right", 130, 245, 120, 55, $BS_RIGHT) _WinAPI_DeleteObject(_SendMessage(GUICtrlGetHandle($mybuttonR), $BM_SETIMAGE, $IMAGE_ICON, $hIcon)) GuiFlatButton_SetState($mybuttonR, $GUI_DISABLE ) ;disabled Local $mybuttonDisable = GuiFlatButton_Create("Disabled", 130, 310, 120, 55, $BS_TOOLBUTTON) _WinAPI_DeleteObject(_SendMessage(GUICtrlGetHandle($mybuttonDisable), $BM_SETIMAGE, $IMAGE_BITMAP, $hHBitmap)) GuiFlatButton_SetState($mybuttonDisable, $GUI_DISABLE ) ;clean up! _WinAPI_DestroyIcon( $hIcon ) _WinAPI_DeleteObject( $hHBitmap ) GUISetState(@SW_SHOW, $hGUI) Local $iMsg While 1 $iMsg = GUIGetMsg() Switch $iMsg Case $GUI_EVENT_CLOSE ExitLoop EndSwitch Sleep(10) WEnd GUIDelete() EndFunc ;==>Example  
      I'm sure there are some use-cases I've forgotten, so feedback is welcome!
       
      Download the UDF and several more examples: GuiFlatButton_20190414.zip
      Update 2019-04-14
      Fixed bug, not showing pressed down state when clicking rapidly
      Added Icon/Bitmap support!
      Added function GuiFlatButton_SetPos to change the position and/or size of a button
      Update 2019-02-09
      Added 2 new functions to set the button colors globally for all future buttons.
      GuiFlatButton_SetDefaultColors 
      GuiFlatButton_SetDefaultColorsEx

      Credits to:
      Melba23 (UDF template)
      LarsJ (general subclassing code)
      4ggr35510n (TrackMouseEvent example)
      binhnx (disable dragging with $WS_EX_CONTROLPARENT)
      GUIRegisterMsg in AutoIt Help (owner-draw button example)
      funkey (_WinAPI_DrawState example)
    • By Burgs
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